What are Friedman numbers? Watch this video to find out!

Most amazing thing is that as numbers get bigger, the likelihood that they are Friedman numbers actually increase! (Friedman numbers have “density one”!)

Any high school student preparing for the American Mathematics Competitions should get their hands on a copy of this book! A major aspect of mathematical training and its benefit to society is the ability to use logic to solve problems. The American Mathematics Competitions (AMC) have been given for more than fifty years to millions of high school students. This book considers the basic ideas behind the solutions to the majority of these problems, and presents examples and exercises from past exams to illustrate the concepts. Anyone taking the AMC exams or helping students prepare for them will find many useful ideas here. But people generally interested in logical problem solving should also find the problems and their solutions interesting. This book will promote interest in mathematics by providing students with the tools to attack problems that occur on mathematical problem-solving exams, and specifically to level the playing field for those who do not have access to the enrichment programs that are common at the top academic high schools. The book can be used either for self-study or to give people who want to help students prepare for mathematics exams easy access to topic-oriented material and samples of problems based on that material. This is useful for teachers who want to hold special sessions for students, but it is equally valuable for parents who have children with mathematical interest and ability. As students’ problem solving abilities improve, they will be able to comprehend more difficult concepts requiring greater mathematical ingenuity. They will be taking their first steps towards becoming math Olympians!

I will now be receiving submissions for Carnival 115.

Firstly, let’s have a discussion on what is so special about the number 115. David Brooks has kindly provided a PDF (Input for Carnival of Math) which the following information is sourced from.

115 has a unique representation as a sum of three squares: 3^{2} + 5^{2} + 9^{2} = 115.

115 is the smallest three-digit integer, abc, such that (abc)/(a*b*c) is prime: 115/5 = 23.

STS-115 was a space shuttle mission to the International Space Station flown by the space shuttle Atlantis on Sept. 9, 2006.

Some other interesting Trivia about 115 include:

115 is the emergency telephone number when calling in Iran. 🙂

115 is the number of cardinals who actually participated to vote for the 265^{th} Pope succeeding the Pope John Paul II in April 2005, even though 117 cardinals were eligible.

This is a very interesting link about tetrominoes! If you are not sure what are tetrominoes, it is perfectly ok! Just go to the website link above and you will find out!

Question:How many different colored tetrominoes are there if we allow only four colors total?

Second question: What the heck is a tetromino?

Dominoes are a great game with rectangle tiles, composed of two adjacent squares with certain numbers of pips on them. A tetromino is a group of four adjacent squares, each sharing at least one side with at least one other square. In other words, those little falling shapes made popular in the game Tetris, and all of its knock-off variations, as seen below:

Summary: The use of the term ‘expected frequencies’ is novel and not widely known in mathematics education. The basic idea is very simple: instead of saying “the probability of X is 0.20 (or 20%)”, we would say “out of 100 situations like this, we would expect X to occur 20 times”.

Sigmund Freud tells the tale of a man accused of breaking his neighbour’s kettle. He mounts a three-stranded defence :

1. “I never borrowed it in the first place!”
2. “And anyway it was already broken when I did!”
3. “In any case, it was fine when I returned it!”

Freud used this as an example of the inconsistent logic of dreamland, although you won’t have to look too far afield in the waking world to find examples of similar reasoning[1].

From Math Circle: The reason I picked billiards to feature at this particular moment is because twoof this year’s Fields Medalists study billiards: Maryam Mirzakhani and Artur Avila. To find out more about these amazing mathematicians, see our recent Math Munch post.

The curious reluctance to define prime probability logically. The title says it all, except stress the point that we need to encourage more reasoning from first principles based on what we individually accept as self-evident, and not on what others believe to be self-evident.

By JoAnne Growney: One of my favorite mathy poets is Halifax mathematician Robert Dawson — his work is complex and inventive, and fun to puzzle over. Dawson’s webpage at St Mary’s University lists his mathematical activity; his poetry and fiction are available in several issues of the Journal of Humanistic Mathematics and in several postings for this blog (15 April 2012, 30 November 2013, 2 March 2014) and in various other locations findable by Google.
Can a poem be written by following a formula? Despite the tendency of most of us to say NO to this question we also may admit to the fact that a formula applied to words can lead to arrangements and thoughts not possible for us who write from our own learning and experiences. How else to be REALLY NEW but to try a new method? Set a chimpanzee at a typewriter or apply a mathematical formula.
Below we offer Dawson’s “Hailstone” and follow it with his explanation of how mathematics shaped the poem from its origin as a “found passage” from the beginning of Dickens’ Great Expectations.

Read this article to learn how to approximate e using just the digitis 1-9! ((1 + 9^{–4^{7×6}})^{3^{2^{85}}}. ) Learn how it works and how remarkably accurate it is! The post is written by Richard Green.

I was in one of my colleagues lessons this week.and he was teaching the class to expand quadratic brackets. As the lesson went on he noticed that a number of pupils had been writing the X squared term, then the constant term then the X term so he pulled the class together to tell them that conventionally we write quadratic equations in decending powers of x. This is excellent practice and something we all should be encouraging, but it made me think “Why decending powers of x?”

Interesting question to ponder!

Read more at: http://cavmaths.wordpress.com/2014/09/26/decending-powers-of-x/

From a well-known actress, math genius and popular contestant on “Dancing With The Stars”—a groundbreaking guide to mathematics for middle school girls, their parents, and educators

From a well-known actress, math genius and popular contestant on “Dancing With The Stars”—a groundbreaking guide to mathematics for middle school girls, their parents, and educators

As the math education crisis in this country continues to make headlines, research continues to prove that it is in middle school when math scores begin to drop—especially for girls—in large part due to the relentless social conditioning that tells girls they “can’t do” math, and that math is “uncool.” Young girls today need strong female role models to embrace the idea that it’s okay to be smart—in fact, it’s sexy to be smart!

It’s Danica McKellar’s mission to be this role model, and demonstrate on a large scale that math doesn’t suck. In this fun and accessible guide, McKellar—dubbed a “math superstar” by The New York Times—gives girls and their parents the tools they need to master the math concepts that confuse middle-schoolers most, including fractions, percentages, pre-algebra, and more. The book features hip, real-world examples, step-by-step instruction, and engaging stories of Danica’s own childhood struggles in math (and stardom). In addition, borrowing from the style of today’s teen magazines, it even includes a Math Horoscope section, Math Personality Quizzes, and Real-Life Testimonials—ultimately revealing why math is easier and cooler than readers think.

This book is intended for the Mathematical Olympiad students who wish to prepare for the study of inequalities, a topic now of frequent use at various levels of mathematical competitions. In this volume we present both classic inequalities and the more useful inequalities for confronting and solving optimization problems. An important part of this book deals with geometric inequalities and this fact makes a big difference with respect to most of the books that deal with this topic in the mathematical olympiad. The book has been organized in four chapters which have each of them a different character. Chapter 1 is dedicated to present basic inequalities. Most of them are numerical inequalities generally lacking any geometric meaning. However, where it is possible to provide a geometric interpretation, we include it as we go along. We emphasize the importance of some of these inequalities, such as the inequality between the arithmetic mean and the geometric mean, the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, the rearrangementinequality, the Jensen inequality, the Muirhead theorem, among others. For all these, besides giving the proof, we present several examples that show how to use them in mathematical olympiad problems. We also emphasize how the substitution strategy is used to deduce several inequalities.

A small psychological change to how we approach challenges can drastically change how successful we are at these tasks.

That’s according to Carol Dweck, a psychology professor at Stanford University, who coined the term “growth mindset” in her 2007 book “Mindset: The New Psychology of Success.”

Microsoft magnate Bill Gates tweeted a video of Dweck explaining the growth mindset earlier this week:

World-renowned Stanford University psychologist Carol Dweck, in decades of research on achievement and success, has discovered a truly groundbreaking idea–the power of our mindset.

Dweck explains why it’s not just our abilities and talent that bring us success–but whether we approach them with a fixed or growth mindset. She makes clear why praising intelligence and ability doesn’t foster self-esteem and lead to accomplishment, but may actually jeopardize success. With the right mindset, we can motivate our kids and help them to raise their grades, as well as reach our own goals–personal and professional. Dweck reveals what all great parents, teachers, CEOs, and athletes already know: how a simple idea about the brain can create a love of learning and a resilience that is the basis of great accomplishment in every area.

There is an interesting upcoming course at Coursera, suitable for undergraduates! (Starting 12 September 2014) Join the class if interested, it is free! Functional Analysis is actually a third year course for Math Majors at university. There are some powerful and deep theorems in functional analysis, like the Riesz representation theorem.

About the Course

Functional analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with spaces of functions. It is a valuable tool in theoretical mathematics as well as engineering. It is at the very core of numerical simulation.

In this class, I will explain the concepts of convergence and talk about topology. You will understand the difference between strong convergence and weak convergence. You will also see how these two concepts can be used.

You will learn about different types of spaces including metric spaces, Banach Spaces, Hilbert Spaces and what property can be expected. You will see beautiful lemmas and theorems such as Riesz and Lax-Milgram and I will also describe Lp spaces, Sobolev spaces and provide a few details about PDEs, or Partial Differential Equations.

Course Syllabus

Week 1: Topology; continuity and convergence of a sequence in a topological space.
Week 2: Metric and normed spaces; completeness
Week 3: Banach spaces; linear continuous functions; weak topology
Week 4: Hilbert spaces; The Riesz representation theorem
Week 5: The Lax-Milgram Lemma
Week 6: Properties of the Lp spaces
Week 7: Distributions and Sobolev Spaces
Week 8: Application: simulating a membrane

Recommended Background

The course is mostly self-contained; however, you need to be familiar with functions, derivatives and integrals. You need to know what A ∩ B means and to know what a proof is. You should be fine if you have taken Calculus II and Algebra II. Students in Europe who have taken 120 ECTS in science should be fine as well.

Because this is an online class, having advanced and non-advanced students in a class will not be a problem; on the contrary we expect a wide range of interesting interactions. However, non-advanced students may have to work a bit more.

Course Format

The class will consist of a series of lecture videos, usually between five and twelve minutes in length. There will be approximately one hour worth of video content per week. Some of the videos contain integrated quiz questions. There will also be standalone quizzes that are not part of the video lectures; you will be asked to solve some problems and evaluate the solutions proposed by your fellow classmates. There will be a final exam.

There will be some additional contents in the form of PDF files.

FAQ

Will I get a Statement of Accomplishment after completing this class?
Yes. Students who successfully complete the class will receive a Statement of Accomplishment signed by the instructor.

What resources will I need for this class?
For this course, all you need is an Internet connection and the time to view the videos, understand the material, discuss the material with fellow classmates, take the quizzes and solve the problems.

What pedagogy will be used?
This MOOC is in English but the math will be taught with a “French Touch”.

What does “teaching math with a French touch” mean?
France has a long-standing tradition where math is addressed from a theoretical standpoint and studied for its implicit value throughout high school and preparatory school for the high-level entrance exams. This leads to a mindset based on proofs and abstraction. This mindset has consequences on problem solving that is sometimes referred to as the “French Engineer”. In contrast, other countries have a tradition where math is addressed as a computation tool.

Does it mean it will abstract and complicated?
The approach will be rather abstract but I will be sure to emphasize the concepts over the technicalities. Above all, my aim is to help you understand the material and the beauty behind it.

Who says math can’t be funny? In Math Jokes 4 Mathy Folks, Patrick Vennebush dispels the myth of the humorless mathematician. His quick wit comes through in this incredible compilation of jokes and stories. Intended for all math types, Math Jokes 4 Mathy Folks provides a comprehensive collection of math humor, containing over 400 jokes. It’s a book that all teachers from elementary school through college should have in their library. But the humor isn’t just for the classroom-it also appeals to engineers, statisticians, and other math professionals searching for some good, clean, numerical fun. From basic facts (Why is 6 afraid of 7?) to trigonometry (Mathematical puns are the first sine of dementia) and algebra (Graphing rational functions is a pain in the asymptote), no topic is safe. As Professor Jim Rubillo notes, Math Jokes 4 Math Folks is an absolute gem for anyone dedicated to seeing mathematical ideas through puns, double meanings, and blatant bad jokes. Such perspectives help to see concepts and ideas in different and creative ways.

Parents, students and teachers often argue, with little evidence, about whether U.S. high schools begin too early in the morning. In the past three years, however, scientific studies have piled up, and they all lead to the same conclusion: a later start time improves learning. And the later the start, the better.Biological research shows that circadian rhythms shift during the teen years, pushing boys and girls to stay up later at night and sleep later into the morning. The phase shift, driven by a change in melatonin in the brain, begins around age 13, gets stronger by ages 15 and 16, and peaks at ages 17, 18 or 19.

Does that affect learning? It does, according to Kyla Wahlstrom, director of the Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement at the University of Minnesota. She published a large study in February that tracked more than 9,000 students in eight public high schools in Minnesota, Colorado and Wyoming. After one semester, when school began at 8:35 a.m. or later, grades earned in math, English, science and social studies typically rose a quarter step—for example, up halfway from B to B+.

Read more at: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/school-starts-too-early/?&WT.mc_id=SA_WR_20140827

Today, we discuss an interesting topic rarely taught in school: The rational parametrization of a unit circle. That is, how to find the x coordinates and y coordinates of a circle expressed as a rational function? The usual parametrization of a circle is (cos t, sin t).

We consider the straight line (l), passing through the point A(1,0) and the point (0,h).

The gradient of this line is .

The y-intercept of this line is .

Hence the equation of line l is .

We know the equation of the unit circle is .

By solving the two simultaneous equations (boxed), we get a quadratic formula:

Solving the above using the quadratic formula gives us .

Using , we get .

Hence, is a parametrization of the unit circle.

We can use this to generate Pythagorean triples! Simply choose a value of h, say, .

Then .

.

Substituting into , and multiplying by the denominator, we get the Pythagorean Triple . Interesting?

This revolutionary book establishes new foundations for trigonometry and Euclidean geometry. It shows how to replace transcendental trig functions with high school arithmetic and algebra to dramatically simplify the subject, increase accuracy in practical problems, and allow metrical geometry to be systematically developed over a general field. This new theory brings together geometry, algebra and number theory and sets out new directions for algebraic geometry, combinatorics, special functions and computer graphics. The treatment is careful and precise, with over one hundred theorems and 170 diagrams, and is meant for a mathematically mature audience. Gifted high school students will find most of the material accessible, although a few chapters require calculus. Applications include surveying and engineering problems, Platonic solids, spherical and cylindrical coordinate systems, and selected physics problems, such as projectile motion and Snell’s law. Examples over finite fields are also included.

Fix your wobbly table with just a small tweak – but why does this work?
Reddit discussion: http://www.reddit.com/r/BradyHaran/co…
Featuring Matthias Kreck from the University of Bonn.

This is a one-of-a-kind reference for anyone with a serious interest in mathematics. Edited by Timothy Gowers, a recipient of the Fields Medal, it presents nearly two hundred entries, written especially for this book by some of the world’s leading mathematicians, that introduce basic mathematical tools and vocabulary; trace the development of modern mathematics; explain essential terms and concepts; examine core ideas in major areas of mathematics; describe the achievements of scores of famous mathematicians; explore the impact of mathematics on other disciplines such as biology, finance, and music–and much, much more.

Unparalleled in its depth of coverage, The Princeton Companion to Mathematics surveys the most active and exciting branches of pure mathematics, providing the context and broad perspective that are vital at a time of increasing specialization in the field. Packed with information and presented in an accessible style, this is an indispensable resource for undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics as well as for researchers and scholars seeking to understand areas outside their specialties.

Currently we are available to tutor private candidates on weekday mornings.

Contact our friendly tutor Mr Wu: email at mathtuition88@gmail.com

Ad hoc O Level Maths Tuition

Nowadays students are often so busy that regular weekly tuition may not be an option. (Due to stay back in school, extra lessons etc.)

We offer Ad hoc O Level Maths Tuition at our tuition centre at Bishan. Students can come for tuition when they need to ask questions or clarify concepts.

Fees will be charged per lesson; this will fit the students’ busy schedule perfectly.

This is a continuation of the series of Algebraic Topology videos. Previous post was AlgTop 0.

Professor Wildberger is an interesting speaker. He holds some unorthodox views, for instance he doesn’t believe in “real numbers” or “infinite sets”. Nevertheless, his videos are excellent and educational. Highly recommended to watch!

The basic topological objects, the line and the circle are viewed in a new light. This is the full first lecture of this beginner’s course in Algebraic Topology, given by N J Wildberger at UNSW. Here we begin to introduce basic one dimensional objects, namely the line and the circle. However each can appear in rather a remarkable variety of different ways.

This revolutionary book establishes new foundations for trigonometry and Euclidean geometry. It shows how to replace transcendental trig functions with high school arithmetic and algebra to dramatically simplify the subject, increase accuracy in practical problems, and allow metrical geometry to be systematically developed over a general field. This new theory brings together geometry, algebra and number theory and sets out new directions for algebraic geometry, combinatorics, special functions and computer graphics. The treatment is careful and precise, with over one hundred theorems and 170 diagrams, and is meant for a mathematically mature audience. Gifted high school students will find most of the material accessible, although a few chapters require calculus. Applications include surveying and engineering problems, Platonic solids, spherical and cylindrical coordinate systems, and selected physics problems, such as projectile motion and Snell’s law. Examples over finite fields are also included.

This is the Introductory lecture to a beginner’s course in Algebraic Topology given by N J Wildberger of the School of Mathematics and Statistics at UNSW in 2010.

This first lecture introduces some of the topics of the course and three problems.

If you are curious about how to make the interesting flap of paper (Problem 1), the solution can be found here. 🙂

This revolutionary book establishes new foundations for trigonometry and Euclidean geometry. It shows how to replace transcendental trig functions with high school arithmetic and algebra to dramatically simplify the subject, increase accuracy in practical problems, and allow metrical geometry to be systematically developed over a general field. This new theory brings together geometry, algebra and number theory and sets out new directions for algebraic geometry, combinatorics, special functions and computer graphics. The treatment is careful and precise, with over one hundred theorems and 170 diagrams, and is meant for a mathematically mature audience. Gifted high school students will find most of the material accessible, although a few chapters require calculus. Applications include surveying and engineering problems, Platonic solids, spherical and cylindrical coordinate systems, and selected physics problems, such as projectile motion and Snell’s law. Examples over finite fields are also included.

Secrets of Mental Math will have you thinking like a math genius in no time. Get ready to amaze your friends—and yourself—with incredible calculations you never thought you could master, as renowned “mathemagician” Arthur Benjamin shares his techniques for lightning-quick calculations and amazing number tricks. This book will teach you to do math in your head faster than you ever thought possible, dramatically improve your memory for numbers, and—maybe for the first time—make mathematics fun.

Yes, even you can learn to do seemingly complex equations in your head; all you need to learn are a few tricks. You’ll be able to quickly multiply and divide triple digits, compute with fractions, and determine squares, cubes, and roots without blinking an eye. No matter what your age or current math ability, Secrets of Mental Math will allow you to perform fantastic feats of the mind effortlessly. This is the math they never taught you in school.

Reviews:

“The clearest, simplest, most entertaining, and best book yet on the art of calculating in your head.” —Martin Gardner, author of Mathematical Magic Show and Mathematical Carnival

Check out this video of a Filipino street kid, who can calculate square roots without a calculator, and even knows the concepts of perfect squares and imaginary numbers!

Compare and contrast with this video:

No matter whether you are good or not so good at Math, it is never too late to learn! It is always possible to improve in Math.

Magical Mathematics reveals the secrets of amazing, fun-to-perform card tricks–and the profound mathematical ideas behind them–that will astound even the most accomplished magician. Persi Diaconis and Ron Graham provide easy, step-by-step instructions for each trick, explaining how to set up the effect and offering tips on what to say and do while performing it. Each card trick introduces a new mathematical idea, and varying the tricks in turn takes readers to the very threshold of today’s mathematical knowledge. For example, the Gilbreath Principle–a fantastic effect where the cards remain in control despite being shuffled–is found to share an intimate connection with the Mandelbrot set. Other card tricks link to the mathematical secrets of combinatorics, graph theory, number theory, topology, the Riemann hypothesis, and even Fermat’s last theorem.

Diaconis and Graham are mathematicians as well as skilled performers with decades of professional experience between them. In this book they share a wealth of conjuring lore, including some closely guarded secrets of legendary magicians. Magical Mathematics covers the mathematics of juggling and shows how the I Ching connects to the history of probability and magic tricks both old and new. It tells the stories–and reveals the best tricks–of the eccentric and brilliant inventors of mathematical magic.Magical Mathematics exposes old gambling secrets through the mathematics of shuffling cards, explains the classic street-gambling scam of three-card monte, traces the history of mathematical magic back to the thirteenth century and the oldest mathematical trick–and much more.

From search engines to big data and cloud services, math plays a key role in IT applications. Read on to know more about the opportunities math has to offer.

In this increasingly digital world, mathematics is everywhere. It is wise to keep track of the myriad opportunities that would be laid open by mathematics education.

“The advancement and perfection of mathematics are intimately connected with the prosperity of the state,” said Napolean Bonaparte. While there may be several opinions regarding Napolean as a leader, this statement holds indisputably true even today.

Read more at: http://www.thehindu.com/features/education/careers/stay-ahead-with-math/article6252546.ece

With more than five million copies in print all around the world, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens is the ultimate teenage success guide—now updated for the digital age.

Imagine you had a roadmap—a step-by-step guide to help you get from where you are now, to where you want to be in the future. Your goals, your dreams, your plans…they are all within reach. You just need the tools to help you get there.

That’s what Sean Covey’s landmark book, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens, has been to millions of teens: a handbook to self-esteem and success. Now updated for the digital age, this classic book applies the timeless principles of the 7 Habits to the tough issues and life-changing decisions teens face. In an entertaining style, Covey provides a simple approach to help teens improve self-image, build friendships, resist peer pressure, achieve their goals, and get along with their parents, as well as tackle the new challenges of our time, like cyberbullying and social media. In addition, this book is stuffed with cartoons, clever ideas, great quotes, and incredible stories about real teens from all over the world.

An indispensable book for teens, as well as parents, teachers, counselors, or any adult who works with teens, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teenshas become the last word on surviving and thriving as a teen and beyond.

“If The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens doesn’t help you, then you must have a perfect life already.”–Jordan McLaughlin, Age 17

Prodded by several comments, I have finally decided to write up some my thoughts on time management here. I actually have been drafting something about this subject for a while, but I soon realised that my own experience with time management is still very much a work in progress (you should see my backlog of papers that need writing up) and I don’t yet have a coherent or definitive philosophy on this topic (other than my advice on writing papers, for instance my page on rapid prototyping). Also, I can only talk about my own personal experiences, which probably do not generalise to all personality types or work situations, though perhaps readers may wish to contribute their own thoughts, experiences, or suggestions in the comments here. [I should also add that I don’t always follow my own advice on these matters, often to my own regret.]

Excellent and educational post by famous Mathematician Timothy Gowers on how to solve Math (Olympiad) problems.

(Post is at the bottom of this article)

Many students often give up immediately when facing a difficult maths problem. However, if students persist on for some time, usually they can come up with a solution or at least an idea on how to solve the problem. That is a great achievement already!

Quote: What I wrote gives some kind of illustration of the twists and turns, many of them fruitless, that people typically take when solving a problem. If I were to draw a moral from it, it would be this: when trying to solve a problem, it is a mistake to expect to take a direct route to the solution. Instead, one formulates subquestions and gradually builds up a useful bank of observations until the direct route becomes clear. Given that we’ve just had the football world cup, I’ll draw an analogy that I find not too bad (though not perfect either): a team plays better if it patiently builds up to an attack on goal than if it hoofs the ball up the pitch or takes shots from a distance. Germany gave an extraordinary illustration of this in their 7-1 defeat of Brazil.

This is a one-of-a-kind reference for anyone with a serious interest in mathematics. Edited by Timothy Gowers, a recipient of the Fields Medal, it presents nearly two hundred entries, written especially for this book by some of the world’s leading mathematicians, that introduce basic mathematical tools and vocabulary; trace the development of modern mathematics; explain essential terms and concepts; examine core ideas in major areas of mathematics; describe the achievements of scores of famous mathematicians; explore the impact of mathematics on other disciplines such as biology, finance, and music–and much, much more.

Unparalleled in its depth of coverage, The Princeton Companion to Mathematics surveys the most active and exciting branches of pure mathematics, providing the context and broad perspective that are vital at a time of increasing specialization in the field. Packed with information and presented in an accessible style, this is an indispensable resource for undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics as well as for researchers and scholars seeking to understand areas outside their specialties.

Features nearly 200 entries, organized thematically and written by an international team of distinguished contributors

Presents major ideas and branches of pure mathematics in a clear, accessible style

Defines and explains important mathematical concepts, methods, theorems, and open problems

Introduces the language of mathematics and the goals of mathematical research

Covers number theory, algebra, analysis, geometry, logic, probability, and more

Traces the history and development of modern mathematics

Profiles more than ninety-five mathematicians who influenced those working today

Explores the influence of mathematics on other disciplines

Includes bibliographies, cross-references, and a comprehensive index

Contributors incude:

Graham Allan, Noga Alon, George Andrews, Tom Archibald, Sir Michael Atiyah, David Aubin, Joan Bagaria, Keith Ball, June Barrow-Green, Alan Beardon, David D. Ben-Zvi, Vitaly Bergelson, Nicholas Bingham, Béla Bollobás, Henk Bos, Bodil Branner, Martin R. Bridson, John P. Burgess, Kevin Buzzard, Peter J. Cameron, Jean-Luc Chabert, Eugenia Cheng, Clifford C. Cocks, Alain Connes, Leo Corry, Wolfgang Coy, Tony Crilly, Serafina Cuomo, Mihalis Dafermos, Partha Dasgupta, Ingrid Daubechies, Joseph W. Dauben, John W. Dawson Jr., Francois de Gandt, Persi Diaconis, Jordan S. Ellenberg, Lawrence C. Evans, Florence Fasanelli, Anita Burdman Feferman, Solomon Feferman, Charles Fefferman, Della Fenster, José Ferreirós, David Fisher, Terry Gannon, A. Gardiner, Charles C. Gillispie, Oded Goldreich, Catherine Goldstein, Fernando Q. Gouvêa, Timothy Gowers, Andrew Granville, Ivor Grattan-Guinness, Jeremy Gray, Ben Green, Ian Grojnowski, Niccolò Guicciardini, Michael Harris, Ulf Hashagen, Nigel Higson, Andrew Hodges, F. E. A. Johnson, Mark Joshi, Kiran S. Kedlaya, Frank Kelly, Sergiu Klainerman, Jon Kleinberg, Israel Kleiner, Jacek Klinowski, Eberhard Knobloch, János Kollár, T. W. Körner, Michael Krivelevich, Peter D. Lax, Imre Leader, Jean-François Le Gall, W. B. R. Lickorish, Martin W. Liebeck, Jesper Lützen, Des MacHale, Alan L. Mackay, Shahn Majid, Lech Maligranda, David Marker, Jean Mawhin, Barry Mazur, Dusa McDuff, Colin McLarty, Bojan Mohar, Peter M. Neumann, Catherine Nolan, James Norris, Brian Osserman, Richard S. Palais, Marco Panza, Karen Hunger Parshall, Gabriel P. Paternain, Jeanne Peiffer, Carl Pomerance, Helmut Pulte, Bruce Reed, Michael C. Reed, Adrian Rice, Eleanor Robson, Igor Rodnianski, John Roe, Mark Ronan, Edward Sandifer, Tilman Sauer, Norbert Schappacher, Andrzej Schinzel, Erhard Scholz, Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze, Gordon Slade, David J. Spiegelhalter, Jacqueline Stedall, Arild Stubhaug, Madhu Sudan, Terence Tao, Jamie Tappenden, C. H. Taubes, Rüdiger Thiele, Burt Totaro, Lloyd N. Trefethen, Dirk van Dalen, Richard Weber, Dominic Welsh, Avi Wigderson, Herbert Wilf, David Wilkins, B. Yandell, Eric Zaslow, Doron Zeilberger

The title of this post is a nod to Terry Tao’s four mini-polymath discussions, in which IMO questions were solved collaboratively online. As the beginning of what I hope will be a long exercise in gathering data about how humans solve these kinds of problems, I decided to have a go at one of this year’s IMO problems, with the idea of writing down my thoughts as I went along. Because I was doing that (and doing it directly into a LaTeX file rather than using paper and pen), I took quite a long time to solve the problem: it was the first question, and therefore intended to be one of the easier ones, so in a competition one would hope to solve it quickly and move on to the more challenging questions 2 and 3 (particularly 3). You get an average of an hour and a half per…

Professor David Eisenbud gives an excellent explanation of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra!

In high school, we learnt that some quadratic equations (e.g. ) do not have real roots. However, by the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, every polynomial equation of degree d has d complex roots! (counting multiplicity)

Learn about the boy who – could read and add numbers when he was three years old, – thwarted his teacher by finding a quick and easy way to sum the numbers 1-100, – attracted the attention of a Duke with his genius, and became the man who… – predicted the reappearance of a lost planet, – discovered basic properties of magnetic forces, – invented a surveying tool used by professionals until the invention of lasers. Based on extensive research of original and secondary sources, this historical narrative will inspire young readers and even curious adults with its touching story of personal achievement.

Most students taking science related courses like Engineering or Physics need to study at least one semester of Calculus. Calculus can be a rather difficult subject, and having a good textbook to learn from is half the battle won! 🙂

We review 3 of the Top Calculus Textbooks on Amazon.com:

The Larson CALCULUS program has a long history of innovation in the calculus market. It has been widely praised by a generation of students and professors for its solid and effective pedagogy that addresses the needs of a broad range of teaching and learning styles and environments. Each title is just one component in a comprehensive calculus course program that carefully integrates and coordinates print, media, and technology products for successful teaching and learning.

This book by Michael Spivak is strongly recommended for Math Majors, or for students interested in learning the theory behind calculus. Includes the theory of epsilon-delta analysis.

3) Thomas’ Calculus (13th Edition)
Thomas’ Calculus, Thirteenth Edition, introduces readers to the intrinsic beauty of calculus and the power of its applications. For more than half a century, this text has been revered for its clear and precise explanations, thoughtfully chosen examples, superior figures, and time-tested exercise sets. With this new edition, the exercises were refined, updated, and expanded–always with the goal of developing technical competence while furthering readers’ appreciation of the subject. Co-authors Hass and Weir have made it their passion to improve the text in keeping with the shifts in both the preparation and ambitions of today’s learners.

This text is designed for a three-semester or four-quarter calculus course (math, engineering, and science majors).

Updated to include: Supplementary Angles, Complementary Angles, and Half Angle Formulas for Trigonometry

Remember, memorizing the formula is not enough. We need to know how to apply and use the formula! (The next level is to know how to derive the formulas, but that will not be tested in the exams. 🙂 )

Do you really really hate Math? Is it your most dreaded subject?

Why not learn to love Math as it is pretty much a compulsory subject until high school? Read this book, it may change your mindset about Math. From a well-known actress, math genius and popular contestant on “Dancing With The Stars”—a groundbreaking guide to mathematics for middle school girls, their parents, and educators

This week’s career memes are an ode to mathematicians, the numerical wizards who use their knowledge to solve practical problems in disciplines such as business, commerce, technology, engineering and the sciences.

A mathematician’s job involves performing computations and analysing and interpreting data, reporting conclusions from a data analysis and using those findings to support or improve business decisions, and developing mathematical or statistical models to analyse data.

Many mathematicians work for governments or for private scientific and R&D companies.

This challenging problem book by renowned US Olympiad coaches, mathematics teachers, and researchers develops a multitude of problem-solving skills needed to excel in mathematical contests and in mathematical research in number theory. Offering inspiration and intellectual delight, the problems throughout the book encourage students to express their ideas in writing to explain how they conceive problems, what conjectures they make, and what conclusions they reach. Applying specific techniques and strategies, readers will acquire a solid understanding of the fundamental concepts and ideas of number theory.

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“Compound interest is the eighth wonder of the world. He who understands it, earns it … he who doesn’t … pays it.” – Albert Einstein

The formula for Compound interest is:

Total Amount =

Where P=Principal amount (starting amount of money)

i = interest rate (in percent)

n = number of times compounded

We will illustrate this using an example:

Compound Interest Example Question

Source: Admiralty Secondary School Preliminary Examination 2011 Paper 2

Q: The cash price of a sports car is $420,000.

Mr Lionel buys it on compound interest loan terms. He pays a down payment of $300,000 and the balance at the end of 5 years with a compound interest rate of 5% per annum. Calculate the amount that Mr Lionel has to pay at the end of 5 years.

Solution:

Firstly, we have to find out what is the balance. The balance would be $420,000-$300,000=$120,000.

That is the Principal amount, i.e. P=120,000. The interest rate, i=5. n=5 since the number of times compounded is 5 (once each year).

Hence, Total Amount =

In conclusion, he has to pay $153153.79 at the end of 5 years.

How is Compound Interest the Eighth Wonder of the World?

Imagine you have an amount of $1000. (P=1000)

And you manage to find a bank that pays 10% compound interest per annum. (i=10)

What happens after 50 years? (n=50)

Using the formula, Total Amount =

The amount would become around $117,000! Isn’t it amazing? This is why Maths is useful and fun.

Check out our Cool Math page for more Math fun facts!

Then on 1 Sep 2004, Mr B will deposit another $100, making the amount greater than $5000.

Hence, answer is 1 Sep 2004.

(iii)

Let the interest rate be x %.

Note that from Jan 2001 to Nov 2003 is 35 months. (Jan 2001 to Dec 2001 is 12 months, Jan 2002 to Dec 2002 is 12 months, Jan 2003 to Nov 2003 is 11 months :))