Algae often builds up on the glass of aquariums. Sometimes even snails and cleaner fish cannot remove the algae entirely.
The best solution is to use a scraper like Mag Float!
Algae often builds up on the glass of aquariums. Sometimes even snails and cleaner fish cannot remove the algae entirely.
The best solution is to use a scraper like Mag Float!
Bettas tend to attack algae-eaters (shrimp, snails, fish). Hence, few algae-eaters can live together with Bettas!
This causes algae problems on our Anubias (and Bucephalandra) plant in the Betta tank.
We are using mechanical scrubbing to remove the algae, with 80% effectiveness.
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Just added a few Blue Ramshorn Snails to the planted aquarium. Blue Ramshorn Snails are a relatively rare variety of Ramshorn Snails, their shell is a nice blue color!
Our Ember Tetras successfully breed, and produce baby fry! There are at least 3 fry at the moment.
The fry are very small (smaller than Cherry Shrimp), and almost transparent. They seem to like to hang out near the bottom of the tank.
Neon Tetra Disease is a mysterious disease that strikes mainly neon tetras, but other fishes are also susceptible to it. The online opinion is that there is no cure, some even suggest euthanizing the poor tetra to avoid it spreading.
The signs of neon tetra disease include some of the following classic symptoms:
Our neon tetra exhibited two of the classic signs (white patch and loss of color near the head), and fin rot near the tail. For more pictures and graphics of the symptoms, see the video below.
We seem to have stumbled upon a cure for neon tetra disease using Melafix. Melafix is a herbal fish medicine based on tea tree oil, and is targeted at bacterial infections of fish.
After one dose of Melafix, and over 9 days, our neon tetra has shown a dramatic improvement (as seen in video below). The white patch of loss of color is gone, and the fin rot near the tail is gone as well. In addition, the fin tissue near the tail has grown back to normal levels.
In the video below, our neon tetra was cured (after around 1 week) from Neon Tetra Disease, after dosing Melafix.
As mentioned before, there is almost no information on neon tetra disease, even though it is a very common disease of neon tetras. Some say that it is caused by a Microsporidian parasite called Pleistophora hyphessobryconis.
There is also a closely related disease called “False Neon Tetra Disease”, which is caused by bacteria. The symptoms are so close that it is impossible to tell apart the two diseases without a microscope in a laboratory.
According to famous fish keeper Cory from Aquarium Co-op, Neon Tetra Disease is caused by Mycobacterium, which also causes fish tuberculosis.
Based on our experience, Melafix certainly seemed to cure the Neon Tetra Disease. Then again, theoretically Melafix works against bacterial diseases but not parasitical diseases. Hence, it may work for the cases of Neon Tetra Disease which are caused by bacteria, but not for those that are caused by parasites.
Floating plants are a great addition to the home aquarium. The first few times we tried to keep floating plants, it all failed. Water lettuce, frogbit, and red root floater all melted away and died within days.
After multiple tries, we think that we have figured out the tricks to keep floating plants in the aquarium! The YouTube video below summarizes 8 essential tips for keeping floating plants alive and thriving in the home aquarium.
For beginners we recommend Salvinia, or water spangles, as the first starting floating plant. It is also easy to remove, as a great contrast to duckweed.
There are many advantages of Salvinia, including it being one of the easiest floating plants to keep alive.
We have compiled some betta fish videos in a YouTube playlist.
Interestingly, from the YouTube comments, people are showing the video to their betta fish rather than the human watching it!
Keeping an aquarium is highly educational for children, in the process kids can learn about biology, chemistry, and math.
Math related aquarium blog posts:
Some photos of spherical water droplets on Salvinia floating plant.
I think Salvinia is one of the easiest floating plant to keep in an aquarium. It has 3 forms Primary form, Secondary form, and Tertiary form and will adopt the most suitable form for whatever conditions is in your aquarium. (The photos shown below are Primary form. Initially, when I bought it, it was in Tertiary form.)
Recently, one of our phoenix rasboras (cousin of chili rasbora) is getting a little round in the belly. Is it pregnant (or the more technical term is gravid)?
We are not very sure, will ask in a forum soon afterwards. Possible alternative reasons is that it is bloated, overfed or even dropsy!
From our experience, it is better that the phoenix rasbora is fat rather than thin. A thin rasbora signals a possible internal parasite problem, which proves to be fatal for this small rasbora species in our experience.
For more footage of the pregnant rasbora, do check out the YouTube video below.
Just came across this free E-book on Corydoras Catfish in a FaceBook Group called “Corydoras Vault Singapore“.
It is very comprehensive, and shows rare Corydoras that many people do not know even exist. It is fascinating how many species of corydoras “armored catfish” there are.
Something I learnt from the book is that Corydoras is named from Greek “kory” which means helmet, and “doras” which means skin.
Do download this free E-book (while it is still free):
Some YouTube footage of peaceful corydoras fish:
We showcase 3 fish that won’t eat shrimp, tried and tested in our very own 5 gallon nano planted tank.
1) Phoenix Rasbora
2) Neon Tetra
3) Lambchop Rasbora
These 3 fish are shrimp safe, in our experience.
There are many baby shrimp, juvenile shrimp, as well as adult blue shrimp (blue version of cherry shrimp) living happily alongside those fish. As well as 1 Amano shrimp.
From what we observe, the fish don’t disturb or bother the shrimp as well. Music is “Foo the Flowerhorn” style peaceful music, aka the Gymnopedie No. 3.
Usually, aggressive or predatory fish like the betta tend to eat or hunt shrimp.
It is relatively easy to breed shrimp, especially cherry shrimp and its color variants. There need to be enough calcium source in the tank, what we did is put some coral chips (crushed corals) which has calcium carbonate. The most common way for shrimp to die is due to unsuccessful molting.
Recently, we had to dose Praziquantel (EIHO Prazi Gold) in the 5 gallon aquarium due to suspected internal parasites.
Basically, we discovered that one or two of our Phoenix Rasboras were pale, skinny and looking sick.
We do have a variety of snails in the tank:
We were most worried about the 2 nerite snails, since the other snails were considered pest snails that we wanted to remove anyway.
The online research results were mixed. We did web searches on API General Cure, and Hikari PraziPro, both of which contained praziquantel as the active ingredient. Most reviews said that they were safe for snails, but there were a few that mentioned that their nerite snails were affected by the treatment (either climbing out of the water, or even dying).
Since the negative reviews were in the minority, we decided to dose praziquantel in our 5 gallon tank, and monitor closely. If any signs of distress were observed, we have a separate tank to place the nerite snails.
Result after one day: No signs of distress, for nerite snails, ramshorn snails, and limpets. The horned nerite snails are still crawling about rather actively doing their thing. They did not attempt to climb out of the water.
Conclusion: Praziquantel seems to be safe for snails (including nerite snails).
The brand of praziquantel I used is called “EIHO Prazi Gold“. It is in liquid form, but there is quite a lot of suspended undissolved white powder in the liquid. The white powder will eventually dissolve when you put it into the aquarium. Praziquantel is notorious for being difficult to dissolve.
Overall, I think it is effective, as I can sometimes even see the dead worms that are expelled by the praziquantel. Also, the affected fish always seem to behave in a weird way, for example becoming more inactive and gasping a little (possibly the parasites are dying inside their body and causing a reaction). Other non-affected fish behave normally as usual.
Monte Carlo plant from Argentina is often said to be the easiest carpeting plant and does not require CO2.
We try it in our low tech tank beside our Ludwigia Sp. Red (2 months old and still alive).
We also cover Monte Carlo plant care tips, guide, and how to plant Monte Carlo.
Basic care tips:
The above video is Day 1 (21 July 2020) of planting Monte Carlo. Hopefully it will survive and carpet in the low tech tank, without CO2!
Day 7: Noticeable improvement in the Monte Carlo carpet in my low tech, no CO2 tank! I do have a mini “time lapse” photo of the Monte Carlo before and after, the difference is quite noticeable. The Monte Carlo has “rooted” itself deeper into the substrate. Hopefully it continues to improve and spread out even more.
Monte Carlo low tech time lapse (photo montage), up till day 13. Growth is noticeable, but yet there is some yellowing and browning. I think the Monte Carlo is still adapting, and possibly transitioning from emersed to submersed. I just heard that another plant, Marsilea hirsuta, may be even easier than Monte Carlo to grow. Tropica rates the Marsilea hirsuta as easy, while Monte Carlo is rated medium. Maybe will try it if the Monte Carlo melts and dies.
This is Day 25 of growing Monte Carlo in low tech, no CO2 tank. The Monte Carlo is growing and surviving, however the growth is vertically upwards instead of carpeting horizontally. In other words, the Monte Carlo plant is not carpeting.
How do we ensure that the Monte Carlo carpets and grow horizontally? Please comment below if you have any suggestions!
New fish! A female betta from the store.
I put it in my 2 gallon planted tank, with Java Ferns and Anubias. I chose female betta as I wanted a short fin betta, and there were no “Plakat” male bettas available. The colors of a female betta are more pale and muted compared to male bettas.
The name of the female betta: Charlotte.
In the store, there was a pair of wild bettas (Betta Mahachai) which were very beautiful. However, they were quite expensive so I did not buy them in the end.
Just some relaxing video of Rasbora fish (Phoenix rasbora) schooling together in a group of 8.
Some rare footage of my Boraras Merah (close relative of Chili Rasbora) schooling in a tight formation. They don’t do this very often. Most of the time they school loosely, or even do their separate stuff. In the middle of my filming, Charlie the poodle is curious and watches as well!
Some Trivia: 7 of the Rasbora were bought in the same store, but 1 of them was from another batch. It took a few months for the 1 sole rasbora to familiarize and join the 7 other rasbora as a team. Quite interesting!
Aquatic Avenue Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/AquaticAvenue/
I have been there personally once. Had a good impression as they had exotic fish not commonly found elsewhere. (For example, Gertrude Rainbowfish (Pseudomugil gertrudae), Celestial Pearl Danio, etc.) They are also specialized in shrimp and plants. It was my first time seeing the Gertrude Rainbowfish, and I was absolutely fascinated.
The guy (not sure of his name) there was clearly knowledgeable about fish (much more knowledgeable than me). Taught me a bit about how to keep Celestial Pearl Danio. The owner was friendly, and can see that he is passionate about the fish and aquarium hobby.
Also, ordered plants online from them. Their plants are of good quality, and labelled correctly. For example, my Ludwigia Super Red was bought from them. It was grown submersed (underwater), and was of good quality (had roots, leaves are bright red color).
For comparison, many other aquarium shops in Singapore don’t label their plants, as well as sell non-aquatic plants. (I as a beginner was “scammed” twice, once with Malayan Aqua Fern, and another time with Alternanthera Sessilis.) Had they been labeled, a simple Google check would suffice to know that they are non-aquatic.
Overall, I would say that they are more of a premium aquarium store, they have great quality and range of rare exotic fish and plants.
There is one negative review of them in a blog online (dated 2014), that was certainly not my experience in 2019. In 2019/2020, my review of Aquatic Avenue is definitely positive.
If you decide to visit them (after the virus situation stabilizes), do check out the nearby Redhill coffeeshop as well. There are many vintage hawker food there which are of good quality, and at very affordable prices.
This plant Salvinia (to be precise Salvinia Molesta or Giant Salvinia) is a super easy floating plant. It has 3 forms: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Forms. I started with Tertiary Form Salvinia, and now have a lot of Primary Form Salvinia, as well as a few Secondary Form Salvinia.
I find that Salvinia is an easy floating plant because:
1) It only requires medium light
2) It has 3 forms and will evolve to the form that is most suited for your tank. The Tertiary Form is usually for outdoor ponds.
3) It is ok with getting a bit wet. Many other floating plants must be completely dry or else they may rot.
4) It has short roots. Hence, there is no need to trim its roots.
5) Easy to remove if you don’t want it. Most of its leaves are linked together. Hence you can remove all the leaves in a few grabs. This is in contrast to duckweed, which is notorious for being hard to remove.
I find that the Primary Form of Giant Salvinia is quite similar to Salvinia Minima, and the Secondary Form of Giant Salvinia is quite similar to Salvinia Natans! Could they be the same species?
Tropica also sells this version of Salvinia which they call it Salvinia auriculata.
Ludwigia Super Red, also known as Ludwigia Palustris or Ludwigia sp. red (mini) is one of the easiest low tech (No CO2) red plants. Due to its small size, it is suitable for nano tanks (with trimming).
It is rated “easy” by Tropica. In comparison, most other red plants are rated “Medium” or “Advanced”.
I am trying out this low tech easy red plant without CO2. Future updates will be posted on this page as well.
Day 1 (May 22, 2020):
This is the second day of growing Ludwigia Palustris, also known as Ludwigia Super Red (sp. red mini). I think new growth has already appeared at the top of the stems! The new growth seems not so red though, maybe my light is not strong enough.
Currently, it is day 4 of growing it. I dose basic fertilizers like Tropica Premium, Seachem Potassium (weekly) and also Seachem Root Tabs (once every few months). I think the plant is adapting to the new environment, I did notice a bit of melting going on.
Still surviving on Day 8! The new leaves are quite cool, they are mixed red and green in coloration, with red mostly at the tips. I wonder if they will turn red completely eventually.
We continue with Day 13 of growing Ludwigia Palustris (aka Ludwigia Super Red) in low tech without CO2. Seems to be surviving! There is a bit of “fungus” problem after feeding Hikari frozen brine shrimp, hopefully it clears after the water change.
Stay tuned for future updates. If you have any experience on growing Ludwigia in low tech tanks, please comment below!
Xiaozhuang Wong, also known as Dennis Wong (an expert aquascaper), has demonstrated that Ludwigia sp. red is actually the same plant as Ludwigia mini super red. It is the same plant, except that it grows smaller adult forms under lean fertilization regimes. This is similar for many plants. The below image shows Ludwigia plant taken from same cutting, grown under 2 different tank nutrient regimes. (Source: Xiaozhuang Wong Facebook)
Étude Op. 25, No. 1 in A-flat major by Chopin is also called Aeolian Harp Etude. It is considered to be of moderate difficulty among the etudes, but can be difficult to play perfectly…
I have never seen this fish before in Singapore. In China, it seems common. It is called “Pang Pi” fish, or Rhodeus /bitterling fish. Although it is not very colorful, it is quite unique due to its relationship to the clam.
As you can see from the video, it likes to hang around the clam/mussel, and it will even lay its eggs inside. Apparently, the clam also deposits its eggs on the “Pang Pi” fish.
Clams are hard to keep, and can be quite tricky for beginners. It is hard to tell if the clam has died or not. (Even an alive clam does not move much. You can see how it moves in the video.) Once the clam has died, it will start decomposing and producing toxins which may harm the entire tank. Also, it is quite common for clams to have parasites and worms in them.
|Fish||Max Length (cm)|
|Black skirt tetra||7.5|
|Mexican dwarf crayfish||5|
|Endler’s livebearer (female)||4.5|
|Cherry Shrimp (Neocaridina davidi)||4|
|White Cloud minnow||4|
|Green neon tetra||3.5|
|Horned Nerite Snail||2.5|
|Endler’s livebearer (male)||2.5|
|Celestial pearl danio||2.5|
Credits: All images are from Wikipedia (and/or my personal collection of fish), unless otherwise specified.
Given N fishes/shrimp, what is the probabillity of having at least 1 male-female pair?
Probability = 1 – (Prob. Of all Male)- (Prob. Of all Female)
If you have 4 fishes, Probability of having a breeding pair = 87.50%
If you have 5 fishes, Probability of having a breeding pair = 93.75%
If you have 6 fishes, Probability of having a breeding pair = 96.88%
If you have 7 fishes, Probability of having a breeding pair = 98.44%
If you have 8 fishes, Probability of having a breeding pair = 99.22%
The official document for Drinking Water Quality analysis can be found on the PUB website.
Note that the above document does not contain any information on potassium (K).
I managed to find another source (dated 2002) on potassium content in NEWater: http://uwatech.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/newater-study-report.pdf. In page 16, the potassium levels are stated as:
Range (Potassium): 0.504 to 3.07 mg/L
Mean (Potassium): 1.08 mg/L
Range (Sodium): 3.16 to 42.1 mg/L
Mean (Sodium): 13.35 mg/L
For aquarium plants, “potassium content should be at least equal to sodium content or higher.” (http://aquayer.com/index.php?page=kaliy-v-akvariume&lang=en)
Usually, the solution is to dose potassium fertilizers (for example potassium sulphate).
In addition, many sources recommend a level of around 20 ppm of Potassium for planted tanks (see for instance this site). That is 20 times the amount found in tap water! Other sources push it further, there are sites that recommend up to 50 ppm of potassium.
Tropica has 2 brands of liquid fertilizer — Specialised Fertilizer and Premium Fertilizer.
The Specialized fertilizer has N+P (nitrogen and phosphates), while the Premium does not. Unfortunately, not much information is available on the exact ingredients, composition, or percentage of each type of nutrient. For example, it is unclear how much potassium the fertilizers have.
I managed to find the exact composition on the UKAPS forum:
|Nutrient (w/w%)||Premium Fertilizer||Specialised Fertilizer|
The composition of ingredients given by Tropica is in w/w% which is weight concentration of a solution. Usually, we want to know the concentration in ppm, or parts per million (equivalently, mg/L).
For that, we can use the Rotala Butterfly calculator. The below information is based on 1 pump (2ml) for a 5 Gallon aquarium.
Your addition of 2 ml (equivalent to 1/4 tsp + 1/8 tsp + 1/32 tsp ) Tropica Plant Growth Premium to your 5gal aquarium adds:
It is quite a “light” dose. Considering that the recommended target concentration of K is 10-30 ppm (from Tom Barr). Singapore water only has on average 1 ppm for K (potassium). Hence, the once a week dose of Tropica fertilizer Premium is definitely not enough to hit 10-30 ppm of K.
An introduction to the aquatic plants in my low tech tank:
1) AR Mini 迷你血心兰
2) Java Fern 铁皇冠
3) Dwarf Sag 矮慈姑
4) Cryptocoryne Wendtii 绿温蒂椒草
5) Giant Salvinia 槐叶萍
6) Anubias 水榕
7) Marimo Moss Ball 海藻球
Just added 1 Seachem Flourish Tab next to my Alternanthera Reineckii Mini (AR Mini). Some “fizzing” or bubbling is observed. Not sure if that is due to the root tab, or maybe I disturbed some gas pockets in the substrate.
I am still continuing the growing of AR Mini in low tech tank (see Alternanthera Reineckii Mini Low Tech).
The below review video is rather convincing proof that Seachem Flourish tabs are one of the best root tabs in the market, despite having low macro nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate). The purpose of having low macro nutrients is for preventing algae.
PM Lee Hsien Loong on the COVID-19 pandemic: “I am in this for a very long time to come. To sustain this, I need everybody’s cooperation – safe distancing, personal hygiene, cooperation when we are contact tracing and discipline when people come back, stay home notification, stay home.” (Video: PMO)
Something interesting in this speech is that PM Lee mentions the plight of a tropical fish shop owner in Singapore.
Time around 5.22:
PM Lee chats with a Tropical Fish shop owner in Teck Ghee, who has been there for “donkey’s years”. She says her supplies come from Malaysia, and Malaysia has locked down. Tropical fish is not an essential item, how does she get her business going?
Very low tech 5 gallon tank for my Phoenix Rasboras (Boraras Merah) and Neon Tetras. I just let the plants grow naturally without CO2, with occasional trimmings. If you look carefully, you can see the Horned Nerite Snail eggs (they look like sesame seeds)!
In this video, popular fish YouTuber Ryo Watanabe is featuring the famous Clementi 328 (C328) Fish Store, arguably the best aquarium in the west (along with its neighboring shops in the stretch of Clementi Block 328).
Clementi Block 328 is my favorite fish store. Chances are very high that you can find whatever you are looking for in one of the shops in the stretch. Other than C328, other notable shops in the area include Polyart, and That Aquarium, and more.
Each store there has its own characteristics, they are unique in their own way (the fish/plants/equipment they carry are all different, it is clear they have different suppliers):
Polyart Clementi: Large collection of fish, including some saltwater. They do carry plants. Their equipment collection is very extensive, and notably they are cheaper than other Polyart outlets (the uncle will often give you a discount off the stated price without you even asking). I usually buy equipment/medication/anti-chlorine from this store.
That Aquarium: Features some of the more exotic fish (I once saw freshwater seahorses, aka pipefish) and shrimp (some black King Kong shrimp or similar that costs up to $100 per shrimp). They do have collection of a lot of “high class” food and equipment that may not be found in other shops.
C328 Aquarium (featured in Ryo Watanabe Fish Video): This store is crammed full of fish, plants and equipment. Notably, the plant section is more extensive than other shops in the Clementi 328 stretch, including frequent sightings of Bucephalandra and other rarer plants. Most of my plants are bought here.
LFS Aquarium: This store is the first fish store on the left. I have good experience buying their fish, so far their fish tend to be healthy without disease. They have good collection of nano fish, which I am interested in. For example, mosquito rasbora, lambchop rasbora are often spotted in their store. They also have Betta in their community tanks, which means that those Betta are proven to be less aggressive and can live with other fish.
Ryo Watanabe also does Fish Videos in Japan, where he is based at currently. Ryo Watanabe’s fish videos center on freshwater fish, including aquarium plants and aquascaping.
I think one of my Anubias rhizomes died (rotted) due to it being tied too tightly. The Anubias rhizome is supposed to be hard and green, if it is soft or brown, something is wrong.
For Anubias, the rhizome is the most important part of the plant, if it is dead, the whole plant will die.
Another reason for the Anubias rhizome rotting is the dreaded Anubias disease, but I don’t think it is the case here because another rhizome just next to the rotted rhizome is perfectly healthy.
Hence, the conclusion is that the Anubias rhizome most likely died from being tied too tightly by the string. It was at the back of my tank so I didn’t really notice it at first. I only noticed it when I saw a new leaf sprout out from the rotting rhizome, but the new leaf melted soon after. Usually, when new leaves melt, it is a sign of something wrong. Upon taking the entire Anubias plant out, I then realized that the rhizome had turned mushy.
The original Anubias was tied (by the seller) with thick string. I don’t really blame them for tying too tight because it is not easy at all to tie Anubias (too loose and it will not stay in place). I cut off the old string, threw away the rotted rhizome, and re-tied the healthy Anubias lightly with sewing thread.
Probably the same problem can occur for Java Fern, Bucephalandra, the rhizome may rot if tied too tightly.
I find this Hikari Shrimp Cuisine quite good. The pellets are quite small sized so you can control exactly how much you want to feed (down to each individual pellet).
This was something that perplexed me for a long time. My fish would grab any food meant for the shrimp, leaving close to nothing left for the slower moving shrimp.
The solution I found was to:
You may switch the order of steps 1 & 2 if you like (I find it easier to crush the pellets when wet).
The main reason why this works is because:
Another way to feed shrimp exclusively is the usage of a shrimp feeding tube and feeding dish.
This depends on how many shrimp you have, and also your tank setup. Ideally, shrimp such as cherry shrimp or Amano shrimp can survive on algae and biofilm. Hence, if your tank is well planted, you only need to feed lightly. Personally, I only feed the shrimps once a week, at around 2 Hikari Shrimp pellets per shrimp.
If your tank is bare (no plants), you need to feed more, maybe once every day or once every two days.
Supplementing with Hikari Shrimp food is good because it contains essential minerals like copper (shrimp need small amounts of copper) and other minerals that can help shrimp molt.
This Japanese boy Ryo Watanabe is currently based in Japan, but used to be in Singapore for some time (his mother works here). I think he is probably back in Singapore recently again based on his videos.
Very amazing discus fish store tour. I usually enjoy watching his videos during meals, I think I have watched almost every single video (except those super long video interviews which may be more than an hour).
Do subscribe to his channel, and like, share, etc. His videos are usually very professionally produced, and he speaks very good English. Sometimes, I wish I have the time to tour all the fish stores like him.
Another fish YouTuber based in SG is SG Bearded Aquarist. Currently, he seems to be “inactive” for quite some time, maybe working on a new project? His videos are also very professionally produced, and he does branch out to overseas aquariums/ saltwater/ planted tanks as well.
One of my favorite videos from SG Bearded Aquarist is the one below (featuring Zaric and Jarenn Foo who are expert Pleco breeders).
Mosquito Rasbora (Boraras Merah / Phoenix Rasbora) can live peacefully together with neon tetras!
The neon tetras mostly ignore the smaller mosquito rasboras, except maybe during feeding time where they try to snatch the food. There has been zero aggression between the mosquito rasboras and the neon tetras.
Mosquito Rasbora are surprisingly clever and have distinct personalities. One of my mosquito rasbora prefer to hangout near the top of the water together with the neon tetras, while another prefers to swim low near the roots of plants.
Many aquarium hobbyists propose fasting their fish once a week (i.e. not feeding the fish one day every week). The benefits of doing so include:
I think in part people fast fish because in nature, if the fish was living it’s natural life, it would never be able to count on finding food every day, so fasting now and then is seen to be more in keeping with a natural life. Living in a glass box is so far from nature I’m not sure how valid that reasoning is, but it does no harm.
Man made foods are also filled with things the fish would never, ever eat in the wild, so fasting may be a break from some of that. Might be better to alternate man made with frozen or live though, the fish will be healthier for it.
If a fish has been constipated, fasting may well give the bowel a needed rest. Man made foods have many things like flour and other binding or bulking agents, and they are, I think, one of the prime reasons some fish become constipated. It’s not what they evolved to eat.
Just for an example, feeding living daphnia in quantity to fish is almost like giving them a laxative, they shoot through so fast, but fish eating living daphnia have amazing colour and vitality too. Great for conditioning to breed. In the wild daphnia are rather ephemeral, having huge numbers in spring and far fewer later. So fish and other critters that eat them, eat them much like we do some of the more perishable fruits.. when they’re available ! They eat all they can ’til they’re gone.
There is also a scientific research article on fasting tilapia fish. Basically the study found that “Overall, results suggest that fasting one day a week does not affect growth efficiency and that tilapia adjust well to relative changes in feeding frequency.”
This blog post is an experiment on whether Alternanthera Reineckii Mini (AR Mini) can survive in a low tech (i.e. no CO2 supplementation) tank.
The plant used is Tropica tissue culture as shown below:
Traditionally, Alternanthera reineckii ‘Mini’ (AR Mini) is grown in high tech, high light tanks where it will grow into a deep red purplish color. In low tech, lower light tanks, I am trying to see if it can still grow, albeit less red. Maybe a lighter red or olive / bronze color like its cousin Alternanthera Roseafolia (below), would be a good enough result.
Tank size: 5 Gallon (I am using this tank: Ripples Premium Aquarium Glass Fish Tank (with Filter and LED Lights) 18.9L)
Light: It is just a basic starter kit LED light with 7 bulbs. Apparently rated just 2.9W.
Substrate: Aqua Gro Aquarium Soil by Ocean Free (it is a local brand by Qian Hu). It should be something similar to ADA Aqua Soil Amazonia II Normal Type (9L), maybe with less nutrients.
Fertilizer: So far I am only using Tropica Plant Growth Premium Fertiliser – 125 ml, one pump per week after water change.
Lighting schedule: I am using an electronic timer with 12 hour photoperiod: 10am-4pm, 5pm-11pm. In between 4-5pm is a siesta (rest/blackout) period (to build up some CO2 if possible).
Day 1 (23 Jan 2020): This is the first day of planting. Still quite purplish undertones. To plant the Tropica tissue culture, I plucked off some of the leaves on the lower stem, and then inserted it into the substrate. No trimming of roots were done (the roots were not long anyway).
Day 3: The next video below is the 3rd day. The pinkish red colors on the underside are mostly gone (quite worrying), but the plants is clearly alive and it has oriented its leaves to face upwards! It is now a olive color with hints of red/pink.
Day 4: Video below. Not much different from Day 3. I realized that there is a Dwarf Sag small plantlet with runner amongst the AR Mini. The Dwarf Sag is one plant that is thriving in the tank. It started with 2 mother plants and now there are at least 8 plants propagated naturally via runners. If necessary, I may remove the dwarf sag (just the one amongst the AR Mini).
Day 5: Melting and shedding of leaves. This is day 5 of planting the AR Mini in the low tech tank. A total of 3 leaves were shed today. I think it is either (a) transitioning from emersed to submersed growth or (b) dying. Hopefully it is the former!
Day 6: Just one leaf melt today. One entire stem got uprooted, maybe it was the snail or the shrimp that disturbed it. There is a little frenzy among the neon tetras and Amano shrimp trying to grab the shrimp pellet. I removed a dwarf sag plantlet among the AR Mini, and replanted the uprooted stem there.
Day 7: No shedding of leaves today, which is good news. I spotted something that looks like hair algae, it could well be a disintegrated Marimo moss ball from “Secret Shrimp Society”. Water change was done, as well as dosing of Tropica Premium Nutrition liquid fertilizer. I ended up trimming the Cryptocoryne Wendtii as its leaves were almost reaching the water surface. I also removed the disintegrated Marimo moss balls from “Secret Shrimp Society” as it was starting to look like hair algae.
Day 10: This is day 10 of growing Alternanthera Reineckii Mini in a low tech tank. The leaves seem to have “perked up” and are slightly pinkish. Overall it looks better than on day 7, I think. The contrast between day 3 is also quite clear. No CO2 in this tank.
Day 13: The AR Mini has changed to a nice orangey-red. There has been shedding of around one leaf per day. The plant still looks alive overall, and in fact has grown taller than the Dwarf Sag beside it. There has been some trimming of the taller plants in the tank (crypts and Anubias).
Day 16: It has passed the 2 week mark. The AR Mini is still alive in the low tech tank. I do observe some new leaves growing.
Day 20: The AR Mini plants are getting more bronze color and less red. The undersides are still a little pinkish red though. Overall quite surprised at the result in my low tech tank. (I was half expecting the plants to die.)
Day 50 (12 March 2020): The aquarium light was upgraded around 10 days ago on 2 March 2020. It has helped the AR Mini in my opinion, making it slightly redder. The AR Mini is very much alive in the low tech tank! I think this dispels the myth that Alternanthera Reineckii Mini requires CO2 to live.
I may add some root tabs in the future (will clearly indicate the moment when I do add it). According to the below video review (it is really excellent), the best root tab on the market seems to be Seachem Flourish Tabs Growth Supplement – Aquatic Plant Stimulant 40 ct.
Update (31 March 2020): I have added 2 root tabs (Seachem Flourish). One right next to the AR Mini, and another a few inches away.
Just bought this red plant at a local fish store at just $2. I am thinking it is Ludwigia repens (or possibly other type of Ludwigia).
Red plant (Ludwigia repens?) in low tech 5 gallon tank. No CO2. I bought this red stem plant for my fish to celebrate Chinese New Year. Hope it can survive in my tank!
Update: Unfortunately, upon further research, the above red plant may actually be Alternanthera sessilis which is not aquatic! The stems and leaves of the above said plant are quite hard and stiff, which is characteristic of a terrestrial plant.
I have tried to ask experts on the Planted Tank Forum, they have confirmed that it is not Ludwigia arcuata (which I originally thought it was).
Just wanted to give a positive review for the Tetra Vacation “Slow Release Feeder” Holiday fish food, which feeds up to 14 days.
I went for a vacation for around 12 days, and came back to zero fish/snail/shrimp deaths, and perfectly healthy fish!
The fish I had were:
All were surviving well after the vacation. It was quite clear that the shrimp and snails were able to eat the food as well (I saw them eating the food, as well as their poop on the feeding dish).
Tetra Vacation food packaging looks like the ones below:
Melafix is quite a popular medication in the aquarium hobby, by the company API. Chances are most people have at least heard about it. However, there is remarkably little information on this medication online, and whatever information is scattered and not centralized.
The active ingredient in Melafix is Melaleuca oil at 1.0% concentration. We can easily then see how Melafix got its name. Melaleuca oil comes from the a tree in the Melaleuca genus, which includes the popular “tea tree” from which “tea tree oil” is derived. Note that there is a technicality where “contrary to popular opinion it is not made from the common Tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia, but from Melaleuca leucadendra, also known as the Cajeput Tree” (Wikipedia).
There seems to be not much research done on Melafix. One of the few research papers is the following:
The use of Melafix on goldfish and clownfish appears to be safe as no adverse effects were noted during the experimental period. The results also showed that Melafix has no effect on the water-quality parameters tested. In vitro efficacy studies were conducted by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of Melafix on various pathogens. The study revealed that Melafix had no significant bactericidal or inhibitory effect on any of the pathogens tested. This observation suggests that anecdotal benefits of Melafix are not owing to antibacterial activity.
The above paper seems to show negative results (no antibacterial activity of Melafix), but at least there is no harmful effects on the fish nor water parameters. The effect of Melafix may not be due to the antibacterial activity per se, but possibly the healing and regenerative aspects of it, or boosting the fish’s immune system and regrowth of tissue.
A paper showing positive effects of Melafix is the following:
In particular, a combination treatment of Melafix® and Pimafix® was highly effective at reducing in vitro survival of parasites from 15 to 2 h and eradicating 95% of gyrodactylids in vivo. The unexpected high efficacy of this combination treatment is likely explained by the high content of terpenes and phenol propanoids in the cajuput and West Indian bay oils, as well as the anti-helminthic properties of the emulsifier Crovol PK 70. Hence, Melafix® and Pimafix® effectively reduce gyrodactylid burdens on fish, increasing the chances of efficient disease control in ornamental fish.
Yet another paper is not on Melafix, but on its active constituent Cajeput oil:
Main antibacterially active agents obtained from plants-Cajeput essential oil–1,8 cineol, linalool, alpha-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol, for example from Melalleuce leucadendron (Myrtaceae) as well as essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum (Labiatae) were combined in tests in vitro with selected antibiotics. Above mentioned plant products were found to be effective medicaments for local application in modern medical practice. Combinations with antibiotics potentiated their therapeutical action. On the basis of tests in vitro the synergistic action of these two kinds of medicaments, i.e., preparations traditionally used for a few last decades–antibiotics–might be well applied for therapeutical needs.
Hence, the above link supports the view that Cajeput oil (active ingredient of Melafix) does have antibacterial properties!
Judging by Amazon reviews (https://amzn.to/34G4Ubr), many people do claim that Melafix works in curing their fish of fin rot, popeye, and various other ailments.
The biggest advantages of Melafix are as follows:
The most “powerful” medication is of course fish antibiotics, but that is the last resort as there are many side effects of antibiotics, including possible wiping out all filter bacteria, and development of resistant bacteria.
An example of fish antibiotics is API General Cure, which is a very powerful fish medication that can treat very serious diseases such as “hole in the head”.
The below is an amazing case of recovery from popeye (eye dangling out) treated by Melafix.
It was absolutely the worst case of Popeye I have ever see with the eye protruding almost 3/8 of an inch and hanging down.. It was so nasty looking that the wife & kids wouldn’t go near the tank as the sight made them feel sick.. I was nearly to the point of putting it down as I figured it would surely get worse and if there was some type of infection involved, I didn’t want to contaminate the tank.
I decided to treat the tank with a product made by API called Melafix. This is an antibacterial made from the extract of Tea Trees. I only used 1/2 the recommended dose as to not create any major impact to the rest of my tank and system.
Long story short, within 2 days of the treatment I thought I noticed a change and saw the fish actually eat. I treated the tank again after 3 days and the eye definitely improved.. After the second treatment I just watch with amazement as the fish made a complete recovery within two week with no sign what so ever the initial problem.
As a general rule of thumb start with 1 tablespoon per 5-7 gallons of aquarium water. This is a safe dose for all fish and plants including salt sensitive corydoras.
In terms of milliliters, it is approximately:
15 ml of salt for a 20 liter tank (5 US gallon tank)
5 ml of salt for a 7 liter tank (2 US gallon tank)
There are various arguments whether cooking salt can be used in place of aquarium salt. Personally, I use normal cooking salt (non-iodized) and so far it works fine (no fish nor shrimp nor snails have died).
Update: We have created a YouTube video on Aquarium Salt (Dosage, Benefits and Tips!)
Example of a 5 Gallon tank:
Example of a 2 Gallon tank:
It is well known that the Java Fern has different “varieties” — such as “trident”, “Windelov”, “Narrow Leaf” and “Needle Leaf”.
I kept normal Java Fern, as well as “Narrow Leaf” Java Fern in Singapore, at a temperature of around 29 to 30 degrees Celsius (85-86 Fahrenheit).
I found that the Normal Java Fern does well (nice green color, and grows baby plantlets), but the “Narrow Leaf” Java Fern does not do well (becomes browner and even blacker by the day).
I checked online and at least four other people have experienced this:
I think cooler temperatures might be the answer. My narrow leaf in syd are lush green and pearling like mad in temps of 25 celsius. In KL, 28-29 celsius, they grow a little, turn brown sometimes and are a bit of a hassle to keep. My normal java fern does well in any temps/conditions, just the narrow leaf, more demanding. Has anyone grew nice long narrow leaf in warm temps? Those in LFS have them in air conditioned rooms.
Other anecdotal evidence that Narrow Leaf Java Fern may do better in cooler waters:
I’ve had a lot of success with Java Ferns and Narrow Leaf Java Ferns (NLJF) in my tank.
My tank is high-light (288Watts for 80gallon) and has lots of CO2 (3bps). I dose it with TMG almost every week. I tie the JF on driftwood and also bury them in my substrate, either way it grows well. Kwek Leong did share with me that growing them in substrate will produce longer leaves for NLJF and that holds true in my tank. I place them very new my water outlet as I read somewhere that the JF thrives in that environment. Also, I have a chiller that keeps my water temp at around 24.5-25.0C.
Hope this helps!
I knew of a tank that grow Narrow Leaf Java Fern very well and the conditions are like what Roger has too. Under these conditions, they grow very rapidly and the leafs are jade green and very clean (no spots at all).
Yet another post:
I used to have prolific growth of Narrow Leaf Java Ferns in my tank. I don’t think CO2 injection is necessary but the ferns probably do better under low light and cold water.
Something else interesting that I found out is that methylene blue seems to affect narrow leaf Java Fern negatively, but not normal Java Fern. Basically, the Methylene blue seems to stain the narrow leaf Java Fern, and lead to its demise. I tried this out inadvertently while dosing my fish tanks with methylene blue to cure ich.
The Narrow Leaf Java Fern is on the right of my fish tank in the video below (it was still in an ok state at that time):
I think the conclusion is that Narrow Leaf Java Fern is a slightly more demanding plant when it comes to temperature (does not do well above 27-28 Celsius). Due to global warming, many countries in the tropics are now stuck with 30 degrees Celsius temperature almost all year round, hence the normal Java Fern may be a better choice.
It also sort of makes sense in terms of plant biology. Usually plants with “thin” leaves tend to be those that live in colder/cooler weather such as pine trees. While plants with big wide leaves are those that live in hot tropical weather (such as banana tree). Using this “logic”, I would suppose that needle leaf Java Fern also does better in cooler waters.
Some very interesting fish (South American cichlids?) at the Yale-NUS Eco-pond. It is quite an unknown place, located deep inside U-Town. Not many people know of its existence. Do check it out if you pass by NUS.
At around the 1:45 mark in the video, you can see some juvenile cichlids eating algae growing on the rock.
Some photos of the Yale-NUS Ecopond:
There is also this rare tree (supposedly the only one in Singapore) right behind the pond, called “Margaritaria indica”. I think only expert botanists can tell what is so special about this tree. To laymen (like me), it looks like any ordinary tree.
There are many blogs focusing on Taiwan tourism, this blog focuses on the aspect of fish you can see/eat in Taiwan.
If you visit the Chiang Kai-Shek memorial hall in Taipei, do check out the pond just nearby. There are many koi in the pond, and also a vending machine with fish food for sale (around NT$10 for a tube of fish food). There are various colors of koi, ranging from dull gray to colorful red, white or gold colors.
The National Taiwan Museum is not as famous as the other museum, National Palace Museum (aka Gu Gong), but nonetheless it holds some interesting specimens related to Taiwan. When I went there, there was a small Marimo Moss ball exhibition. The Marimo Moss ball were of exceptional high quality (better than any moss ball I saw in Singapore). They were dark green, dense, and almost perfectly spherical.
Very healthy looking Water Lettuce specimens in a large porcelain bowl. The leaves were almost perfect, with no holes. There is also a female guppy (camouflaged in the second picture), together with guppy fry living in the bowl. This was seen on Shifen Old Street towards the waterfall.
On the way to the famous waterfall at Shifen, there is yet another Koi pond with the option to purchase fish food (this time at NT$20). Interestingly, I did spot fishes in the river adjoining the waterfall, but it is quite hard to photograph them due to their color (dull black) and the distance. I wonder what happens if they fall down the waterfall.
The most famous aquarium street in Taipei is the one at Section 5, Minquan East Road. Unfortunately, it is not very accessible via train. Despite sounding similar, the Minquan West Road Metro station is very far from Minquan East Road.
I went to a nearby aquarium in Shilin district instead. To my surprise, there was an alligator snapping turtle in the aquarium (together with various interesting species of aquatic tortoises). Just beside the aquarium was a local Taiwanese restaurant popular with locals, with free flow rice and ice-cream. In the restaurant, there are a few live fish and crabs for eating, and there was a moray eel inside!
One thing to note is that Cod Fish (Snow Fish or Xue Yu) is quite cheap in Taiwan, in the restaurant one slab of Cod Fish the size of my hand is just NT$180 or SGD$8. In Singapore, the price is at least double or triple that.
Recently, my mosquito rasbora (Boraras merah) was acting weirdly by hiding in a corner and sleeping more than usual.
Upon closer examination, I found “specks” on it. At first I thought it was velvet. However, this was an old tank and there has not been any introduced fish for more than 2 months. Then I realized it was probably dropsy and the specks were actually pineconing of the scales, which looks like specks of dust because of the smallness of the scales (this mosquito rasbora is one of the smallest fish in the freshwater aquarium, measuring less than 2 cm when fully grown). In conclusion, I think dropsy in tiny fish can probably look like velvet.
I think the reason is that the dwarf hairgrass (and Japanese hairgrass) planted in the sand substrate has failed to grow, and in fact has started to die and rot, releasing ammonia, nitrites and/or nitrates into the water. I do have a Seachem Ammonia Alert badge that did not show any readings.
Hence, I suspect it is probably nitrates. I added Methylene blue (full dose) after 50% water change, and then continued 50% water change on the second day, topping up the Methylene blue (half dose). On the third day, another 50% water change. (For all days during the water change, I removed the rotting hairgrass as well as any pond snails pests that I find, and wiped off algae).
After the third day, the mosquito rasbora began to behave normally again, swimming around and schooling together with the lambchop rasbora. I hope it will survive.
The lambchop rasbora seem unaffected and seem more hardy than the mosquito rasbora. I think the mosquito rasbora may be more sensitive to water parameters.
Just realized that there is some parallel between the Chinese Giant Fish Kun (鲲) and the Jewish Giant Fish Leviathan.
Similarly, Chinese Giant Bird Peng (鹏) = Jewish Giant Bird Ziz.
In the northern darkness there is a fish and his name is K’un. The K’un is so huge I don’t know how many thousand li he measures. He changes and becomes a bird whose name is P’eng. The back of the P’eng measures I don’t know how many thousand li across and, when he rises up and flies off, his wings are like clouds all over the sky. When the sea begins to move, this bird sets off for the southern darkness, which is the Lake of Heaven.
As Leviathan is the king of fishes, so the Ziz is appointed to rule over the birds. His name comes from the variety of tastes his flesh has; it tastes like this, zeh, and like that, zeh. The Ziz is as monstrous of size as Leviathan himself. His ankles rest on the earth, and his head reaches to the very sky.
I just realized that 2 of the previous shrimp I bought may not be “true” Amano Shrimp.
Basically, they lack the distinctive dots / dashes of true Amano shrimp. See also this site on an example of fake Amano shrimp: https://www.plantedtank.net/forums/88-shrimp-other-invertebrates/570946-amanos-born-their-side-top-markings.html
You can also see the shrimp in my YouTube video (around 2m 43s mark):
Despite it being an “imposter”, it behaved quite similar to Amano shrimp, eating algae and cleaning up the tank. According to some online sources, it could be Malayan shrimp which is also quite probable due to the locality (Malaysia is just next to Singapore). Malayan shrimp have different colors, and the clear colored ones look very much like Amano or Yamato shrimp.
What is interesting about this shrimp (fake Amano) is that it totally disappeared from my fish tanks — twice. The first time, it disappeared from an open tank with just neon tetras in them. The second time (another shrimp of the same type), it totally disappeared from a close lid tank with just a honey gourami and 2 horned nerite snails. I did not find their body anywhere inside or outside the tank.
What I suspect is that they died soon after molting (I did see them molt), and then got totally eaten up by the small fish as shrimp sashimi. Or possibly they have a very fast rate of decomposition and can essentially “dissolve” into the water overnight.
” No human being, however great or powerful, was ever so free as a fish”
– John Ruskin
The full context can be found here: https://biblehub.com/sermons/auth/ruskin/liberty_and_restraint.htm
You hear every day greater numbers of foolish people speaking about liberty, as if it were such an honourable thing; so far from being that, it is, on the whole, and in the broadest sense, dishonourable, and an attribute of the lower creatures. No human being, however great or powerful, was ever so free as a fish. There is always something that he must or must not do; while the fish may do whatever he likes. All the kingdoms of the world put together are not half so large as the sea, and all the railroads and wheels that ever were or will be invented, are not so easy as fins. You will find, on fairly thinking of it, that it is his restraint which is honourable to man, not his liberty; and, what is more, it is restraint which is honourable even in the lower animals. A butterfly is more free than a bee, but you honour the bee more just because it is subject to certain laws which fit it for orderly function in bee society. And throughout the world, of the two abstract things, liberty and restraint, restraint is always the more honourable. It is true, indeed, that in these and all other matters you never can reason finally from the abstraction, for both liberty and restraint are good when they are nobly chosen, and both are bad when they are badly chosen; but of the two, I repeat, it is restraint which characterises the higher creature, and betters the lower creature; and from the ministering of the archangel to the labour of the insect, from the poising of the planets to the gravitation of a grain of dust — the power and glory of all creatures and all matter consist in their obedience, not in their freedom. The sun has no liberty, a dead leaf has much. The dust of which you are formed has no liberty. Its liberty will come — with its corruption.
Betta fish are quite intelligent and curious. I trained my Betta fish to do some simple tricks.
I bought my 5 Gallon tank on Qoo10: Betta Fish Tank. The modern viewpoint is that Betta should not be kept in small bowls or vases (though they might still survive). A 2.5 gallon tank is considered the absolute minimum, with 5 gallon and above being a better choice.
This “Malayan Aqua Fern” is a very mysterious plant, there is very little information on Google about it.
There are two views on it, based on online writings.
The “Malayan Aqua Fern” is none other than Peacock Fern, or Selaginella willdenowii. It is NOT an aquatic plant, and will die if fully submerged under water. This is quite reasonable, based on the pictures of Peacock Fern online, it does look like the pictures of the “Malayan Aqua Fern”. Nonetheless, it can be planted in a crab/terrapin tank where it is not fully submerged under water.
The “Malayan Aqua Fern” may give the illusion of surviving under water when it may be slowly dying (takes around a month to die).
Websites that support this view:
The “Malayan Aqua Fern” is an amphibious plant, able to live both submerged or in moist conditions. If this is true, then “Malayan Aqua Fern” would be an incredible aquarium plant as it looks very good in a fish tank.
Websites that support this view:
The main question is whether the Malayan Aqua Fern is aquatic or not? Can it grow fully submerged under water? If you have experience with the Malayan Aqua Fern, please leave your comments below!
My betta in a 5 Gallon tank, together with 2 Amano shrimp (I think that’s the breed though I am not 100% sure) and 1 Zebra Snail. Anyone knows the names of the aquatic plants? I know one of them is “guppy grass”, the other two I have no idea. Please comment below if you know!
A more detailed view of the Zebra snail: