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Tag Archives: Topology
Very nice introduction to Cohomology (8 min)
This is a very nice and concise 8 minute introduction to cohomology. Very clear and tells you the gist of cohomology.
Recommended Books for Spectral Sequences
Best Spectral Sequence Book So far the most comprehensive book looks like McCleary’s book: A User’s Guide to Spectral Sequences. It is also suitable for those interested in the algebraic viewpoint. W.S. Massey wrote a very positive review to this … Continue reading
Topology application to Physics
Source: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/thestrangetopologythatisreshapingphysics/?W The Strange Topology That Is Reshaping Physics Topological effects might be hiding inside perfectly ordinary materials, waiting to reveal bizarre new particles or bolster quantum computing Charles Kane never thought he would be cavorting with topologists. “I don’t think … Continue reading
Summary: Shapes, radius functions and persistent homology
This is a summary of a talk by Professor Herbert Edelsbrunner, IST Austria. The PDF slides can be found here: persistent homology slides. Biogeometry (2:51 in video) We can think of proteins as a geometric object by replacing every atom by a … Continue reading
Brain has 11 dimensions
One of the possible applications of algebraic topology is in studying the brain, which is known to be very complicated. Site: https://www.wired.com/story/themindbogglingmaththatmaybemappedthebrainin11dimensions/ If you can call understanding the dynamics of a virtual rat brain a realworld problem. In a multimilliondollar supercomputer … Continue reading
Guide to Starting Javaplex (With Matlab)
Guide to Starting Javaplex (With Matlab) Step 1) Visit https://appliedtopology.github.io/javaplex/ and download the Persistent Homology and Topological Data Analysis Library 2) Download the tutorial at http://www.math.colostate.edu/~adams/research/javaplex_tutorial.pdf and jump to section 1.3. Installation for Matlab. 3) In Matlab, change Matlab’s “Current … Continue reading
How the Staircase Diagram changes when we pass to derived couple (Spectral Sequence)
Set and . The diagram then has the following form: When we pass to the derived couple, each group is replaced by a subgroup . The differentials go two units to the right, and we replace the term by the … Continue reading
Relative Homology Groups
Given a space and a subspace , define . Since the boundary map takes to , it induces a quotient boundary map . We have a chain complex where holds. The relative homology groups are the homology groups of this … Continue reading
Exact sequence (Quotient space)
Exact sequence (Quotient space) If is a space and is a nonempty closed subspace that is a deformation retract of some neighborhood in , then there is an exact sequence where is the inclusion and is the quotient map . … Continue reading
Reduced Homology
Define the reduced homology groups to be the homology groups of the augmented chain complex where . We require to be nonempty, to avoid having a nontrivial homology group in dimension 1. Relation between and Since , vanishes on and … Continue reading
Klein Bottle as Gluing of Two Mobius Bands
This is a nice picture on how the Klein bottle can be formed by gluing two Mobius bands together. Very neat and selfexplanatory! Source: https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/907176/kleinbottleastwom%C3%B6biusstrips
MayerVietoris Sequence applied to Spheres
MayerVietoris Sequence For a pair of subspaces such that , the exact MV sequence has the form Example: Let with and the northern and southern hemispheres, so that . Then in the reduced MayerVietoris sequence the terms are zero. So … Continue reading
Spectral Sequence
Spectral Sequence is one of the advanced tools in Algebraic Topology. The following definition is from Hatcher’s 5th chapter on Spectral Sequences. The staircase diagram looks particularly impressive and intimidating at the same time. Unfortunately, my LaTeX to WordPress Converter … Continue reading
Echelon Form Lemma (Column Echelon vs Smith Normal Form)
The pivots in columnechelon form are the same as the diagonal elements in (Smith) normal form. Moreover, the degree of the basis elements on pivot rows is the same in both forms. Proof: Due to the initial sort, the degree … Continue reading
Persistent Homology Algorithm
Algorithm for Fields In this section we describe an algorithm for computing persistent homology over a field. We use the small filtration as an example and compute over , although the algorithm works for any field. A filtered simplicial complex … Continue reading
De Rham Cohomology
De Rham Cohomology is a very cool sounding term in advanced math. This blog post is a short introduction on how it is defined. Also, do check out our presentation on the relation between De Rham Cohomology and physics: De Rham … Continue reading
Singular Homology
A singular simplex in a space is a map . Let be the free abelian group with basis the set of singular simplices in . Elements of , called singular chains, are finite formal sums for and . A boundary … Continue reading
Mapping Cone Theorem
Mapping cone Let be a map in . We construct the mapping cone , where is identified with for all . Proposition: For any map we have if and only if has an extension to . Proof: By an earlier … Continue reading
Tangent space (Derivation definition)
Let be a smooth manifold, and let . A linear map is called a derivation at if it satisfies The tangent space to at , denoted by , is defined as the set of all derivations of at .
Homology Group of some Common Spaces
Homology of Circle Homology of Torus Homology of Real Projective Plane Homology of Klein Bottle Also see How to calculate Homology Groups (Klein Bottle).
Summary of Persistent Homology
We summarize the work so far and relate it to previous results. Our input is a filtered complex and we wish to find its th homology . In each dimension the homology of complex becomes a vector space over a … Continue reading
Structure Theorem for finitely generated (graded) modules over a PID
If is a PID, then every finitely generated module over is isomorphic to a direct sum of cyclic modules. That is, there is a unique decreasing sequence of proper ideals such that where , and . Similarly, every graded module … Continue reading
Persistence Interval
Next, we want to parametrize the isomorphism classes of the modules by suitable objects. A interval is an ordered pair with . We may associate a graded module to a set of intervals via a bijection . We define for … Continue reading
Homogenous / Graded Ideal
Let be a graded ring. An ideal is homogenous (also called graded) if for every element , its homogenous components also belong to . An ideal in a graded ring is homogenous if and only if it is a graded … Continue reading
Persistence module and Graded Module
We show that the persistent homology of a filtered simplicial complex is the standard homology of a particular graded module over a polynomial ring. First we review some definitions. A graded ring is a ring (a direct sum of abelian … Continue reading
Persistence module and Finite type
A persistence module is a family of modules , together with homomorphisms . For example, the homology of a persistence complex is a persistence module, where maps a homology class to the one that contains it. A persistence complex (resp.\ … Continue reading
Homotopy for Maps vs Paths
Homotopy (of maps) A homotopy is a family of maps , , such that the associated map given by is continuous. Two maps are called homotopic, denoted , if there exists a homotopy connecting them. Homotopy of paths A homotopy … Continue reading
Universal Property of Quotient Groups (Hungerford)
If is a homomorphism and is a normal subgroup of contained in the kernel of , then “factors through” the quotient uniquely. This can be used to prove the following proposition: A chain map between chain complexes and induces homomorphisms … Continue reading
Some Homology Definitions
Chain Complex A sequence of homomorphisms of abelian groups with for each . th Homology Group is the free abelian group with basis the open simplices of . chains Elements of , called chains, can be written as finite formal … Continue reading
Introduction to Persistent Homology (Cech and VietorisRips complex)
Motivation Data is commonly represented as an unordered sequence of points in the Euclidean space . The global `shape’ of the data may provide important information about the underlying phenomena of the data. For data points in , determining the … Continue reading
Natural Equivalence relating Suspension and Loop Space
Theorem: If , , , , Hausdorff and locally compact, then there is a natural equivalence defined by , where if is a map then is given by . We need the following two propositions in order to prove the … Continue reading
Fundamental Group of S^n is trivial if n>=2
if We need the following lemma: If a space is the union of a collection of pathconnected open sets each containing the basepoint and if each intersection is pathconnected, then every loop in at is homotopic to a product of … Continue reading
Functors, Homotopy Sets and Groups
Functors Definition: A functor from a category to a category is a function which – For each object , we have an object . – For each , we have a morphism Furthermore, is required to satisfy the two axioms: – For … Continue reading
Algebraic Topology: Fundamental Group
Homotopy of paths A homotopy of paths in a space is a family , , such that (i) The endpoints and are independent of . (ii) The associated map defined by is continuous. When two paths and are connected in this way … Continue reading
Topological Monster: Alexander horned sphere
Very interesting object indeed. Also see this previous video on How to Unlock Interlocked Fingers Topologically? The horned sphere, together with its inside, is a topological 3ball, the Alexander horned ball, and so is simply connected; i.e., every loop can … Continue reading
Hatcher 2.1.6
Compute the simplicial homology groups of the complex obtained from 2simplices by identifying all three edges of to a single edge, and for identifying the edges and of to a single edge and the edge to the edge of . … Continue reading
Wonderful Topology Notes for Beginners
Recently found a wonderful topology notes, suitable for beginners at: http://mathcircle.berkeley.edu/archivedocs/2010_2011/lectures/1011lecturespdf/bmc_topology_manifolds.pdf It starts by pondering the shape of the earth, then generalizes to other surfaces. It also has a nice section on Fundamental Polygons and cutting and gluing, which was what … Continue reading
From Triangle to Mobius Strip
What familiar space is the quotient complex of a 2simplex obtained by identifying the edges and , preserving the ordering of vertices? This is a question from Hatcher. So if we “glue” two edges of the triangle together, preserving order, … Continue reading
Covering map is an open map
We prove a lemma that the covering map is an open map. Let be open in . Let , then has an evenly covered open neighborhood , such that , where the are disjoint open sets in , and is … Continue reading
Topology Puzzle
Assume you are a superman who is very elastic, after making linked rings with your index fingers and thumbs, could you move your hands apart without separating the joined fingertips? In other words, is it possible to go from (a) to (b) … Continue reading
Topology book for General Audience
Previously I blogged about the book The Shape of Space, here is another book that is also about topology and suitable for a general audience (high school and above)! Intuitive Topology (Mathematical World, Vol 4)
Effective Homotopy Method
The main idea of the effective homotopy method is the following: given some Kan simplicial sets , a topological constructor produces a new simplicial set . If solutions for the homotopical problems of the spaces are known, then one should … Continue reading
Representing map of x
Proposition: (Representing map of ). Let be a simplicial set and let . There exists a unique simplicial map such that . Proof: Let . can be written as iterated compositions of faces and degeneracies of , i.e. where is … Continue reading
Minimal Simplicial Sets
Let be a space. We can have a fibrant simplicial set, namely the singular simplicial set , where is the set of all continuous maps from the simplex to . However seems too large as there are uncountably many elements … Continue reading
Higher Homotopy Groups
We can generalise the idea to higher homotopy groups as follows. Let be a pointed fibrant simplicial set. The fundamental group is the quotient set of the spherical elements in subject to the relation generated by if there exists such … Continue reading
Associativity and Path Inverse for Fundamental Groupoids
Continued from Path product and fundamental groupoids (Associativity). Let be a fibrant simplicial set and let , and be paths in such that and . Then Let be a point. Denote as the constant simplicial map for . (Path Inverse). Let … Continue reading
Path product and fundamental groupoids
Let . A path is a simplicial map . Since , the paths are in onetoone correspondence to the elements in via the function . The initial point of is , and the end point of is . Let and … Continue reading
Homotopy Groups
Let be a pointed fibrant simplicial set. The homotopy group , as a set, is defined by , i.e. the set of the pointed homotopy classes of all pointed simplicial maps from to . as sets. An element is said … Continue reading
Geometrical Meaning of Matching Faces
Let be a simplicial set. The elements are said to be matching faces with respect to if for and . Geometrically, matching faces are faces that “match” along lowerdimensional faces. In other words, they are “adjacent”. In the 2simplex, let … Continue reading
Fibrant Simplicial Set
Let be a simplicial set. Then is fibrant if and only if every simplicial map has an extension for each . Assume that is fibrant. Let . The elements are matching faces with respect to . This is because for … Continue reading