Universal Property of Quotient Groups (Hungerford)

If f:G\to H is a homomorphism and N is a normal subgroup of G contained in the kernel of f, then f “factors through” the quotient G/N uniquely.Universal Property of Quotient

This can be used to prove the following proposition:
A chain map f_\bullet between chain complexes (A_\bullet, \partial_{A, \bullet}) and (B_\bullet, \partial_{B,\bullet}) induces homomorphisms between the homology groups of the two complexes.

The relation \partial f=f\partial implies that f takes cycles to cycles since \partial\alpha=0 implies \partial(f\alpha)=f(\partial\alpha)=0. Also f takes boundaries to boundaries since f(\partial\beta)=\partial(f\beta). Hence f_\bullet induces a homomorphism (f_\bullet)_*: H_\bullet (A_\bullet)\to H_\bullet (B_\bullet), by universal property of quotient groups.

For \beta\in\text{Im} \partial_{A,n+1}, we have \pi_{B,n}f_n(\beta)=\text{Im}\partial_{B,n+1}. Therefore \text{Im}\partial_{A,n+1}\subseteq\ker(\pi_{B,n}\circ f_n).


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