## Limit Laws $\displaystyle \boxed{\lim_{x\to c}(f(x)+g(x))=\lim_{x\to c}f(x)+\lim_{x\to c}g(x)}$
provided both $\lim_{x\to c}f(x)$ and $\lim_{x\to c}g(x)$ exist.

## Subtraction Law $\displaystyle \boxed{\lim_{x\to c}(f(x)-g(x))=\lim_{x\to c}f(x)-\lim_{x\to c}g(x)}$
provided both $\lim_{x\to c}f(x)$ and $\lim_{x\to c}g(x)$ exist.

## Multiplication Law $\displaystyle \boxed{\lim_{x\to c}(f(x)\cdot g(x))=\lim_{x\to c}f(x)\cdot\lim_{x\to c}g(x)}$
provided both $\lim_{x\to c}f(x)$ and $\lim_{x\to c}g(x)$ exist.

## Division Law $\displaystyle \boxed{\lim_{x\to c}\frac{f(x)}{g(x)}=\frac{\lim_{x\to c}f(x)}{\lim_{x\to c}g(x)}}$
provided both limits on the right exist, and $\lim_{x\to c}g(x)\neq 0$.

## Logarithm Technique

If $\displaystyle \lim_{x\to c}\ln f(x)=a,$ then $\displaystyle \lim_{x\to c}f(x)=e^a.$

## Calculus World Cup

The National Taiwan University is holding the first ever Calculus World Cup (CWC) in February 2016. It’s the first time students from global top universities will be able to compete over Calculus in e-sports. The competition will be held on PaGamO – a social online gaming platform for education. The top 12 teams will be invited to Taiwan for the final round, and great prizes with a value of over \$70,000 await the finalists!
Official website: http://cwc.pagamo.com.tw

Registration: https://pagamo.com.tw/calculus_cup

## Undergrad Math Tuition: Maxima and Minima (Multivariable Calculus)

At the undergraduate level, sometimes functions are of two variables (x,y). How do we find the maximum or minimum points of such a function?

Read the following PDF to find out!

Recommended Book:  Multivariable Calculus, 7th Edition This is a highly practical book on Multivariable Calculus. It is also suitable for Engineers / Physics Majors. I learnt Multivariable Calculus from this book. 🙂

## The Scientific (Mathematical) Way to Cut a Cake

Ever wondered if there is an alternative way to cutting cake so that it can stay fresh and softer in the refrigerator?

This is how!

Featured book:  The Calculus Lifesaver: All the Tools You Need to Excel at Calculus (Princeton Lifesaver Study Guide) For many students, calculus can be the most mystifying and frustrating course they will ever take. The Calculus Lifesaver provides students with the essential tools they need not only to learn calculus, but to excel at it.

All of the material in this user-friendly study guide has been proven to get results. The book arose from Adrian Banner’s popular calculus review course at Princeton University, which he developed especially for students who are motivated to earn A’s but get only average grades on exams. The complete course will be available for free on the Web in a series of videotaped lectures. This study guide works as a supplement to any single-variable calculus course or textbook. Coupled with a selection of exercises, the book can also be used as a textbook in its own right. The style is informal, non-intimidating, and even entertaining, without sacrificing comprehensiveness. The author elaborates standard course material with scores of detailed examples that treat the reader to an “inner monologue”–the train of thought students should be following in order to solve the problem–providing the necessary reasoning as well as the solution. The book’s emphasis is on building problem-solving skills. Examples range from easy to difficult and illustrate the in-depth presentation of theory.

The Calculus Lifesaver combines ease of use and readability with the depth of content and mathematical rigor of the best calculus textbooks. It is an indispensable volume for any student seeking to master calculus.

• Serves as a companion to any single-variable calculus textbook
• Informal, entertaining, and not intimidating
• Informative videos that follow the book–a full forty-eight hours of Banner’s Princeton calculus-review course–is available at Adrian Banner lectures
• More than 475 examples (ranging from easy to hard) provide step-by-step reasoning
• Theorems and methods justified and connections made to actual practice
• Difficult topics such as improper integrals and infinite series covered in detail
• Tried and tested by students taking freshman calculus

## Mr Bean Calculus and Trigonometry Math Exam

For O Levels, we need to be proficient in both Calculus (Differentiation and Integration), AND Trigonometry! Students need to revise early to avoid being like Mr Bean! ## Performing well in math is generally a result of hard work, not innate skill

Recently, I read this article in The Atlantic about the myth of being innately “bad at math,” and how performing well in math is generally a result of hard work, not innate skill. By all accounts, I should have known this, but it only took that one semester to break down years of confidence in my aptitude. In the article, the author notes several patterns we see that reinforce this myth. The one that resonated most with me was as follows:

“The well-prepared kids, not realizing that the B students were simply unprepared, assume that they are ‘math people,’ and work hard in the future, cementing their advantage.”

And the B students (or in my case D student), well, they assume it’s about skill level and from that point forward it’s a self-fulfilling prophecy.

My mentor convinced me to apply to business school, and when he asked why I wouldn’t apply to Wharton, I said, “too quantitative.” I was scared. But he convinced me to apply, and after a crash course in Calculus, I learned that if I worked hard enough, indeed I could have success… even when my classmates were so-called quant jocks.

For me, it worked out, but for millions of kids in our education system, the ending isn’t so happy. Instead, parents determine at a very young age that a child has or does not have math skills. And, I would argue, they — we — do the same with reading. We decide that it’s one or the other, left or right brain. Instead, we can acknowledge our kids’ struggles with a particular subject, while continuing to encourage and remind them that a consistent effort can make a tremendous difference, but it takes perseverance.

What do I wish my teacher had done? I wish he had told me that I could do everything my classmates were doing, but I lacked the preparation before I ever stepped foot in his classroom.  If only he had instilled that confidence in me, that simple knowing that I could do better, who knows what else I might have tackled coming out of high school.

## Recommended Calculus Book for Undergraduates  Thomas’ Calculus (12th Edition) Thomas’ Calculus is the recommended textbook to learn Undergraduate Calculus (necessary for Engineering, Physics and many science majors). It is used by NUS and can be bought at the Coop.

Full of pictures, and many exercises, this book would be a good book to read for anyone looking to learn Calculus in advance.

## What is the Difference between H1 Mathematics, H2 Mathematics and H3 Mathematics?

Note: Additional Mathematics is very helpful to take H2 Mathematics in JC!

## Curriculum

There are three mathematics syllabi, namely H1 Mathematics, H2 Mathematics and H3 Mathematics.

Students who offered Additional Mathematics and passed the subject at the GCE ‘O’ level examination may take up H2 Mathematics. Students posted to the Arts stream and did not offer Additional Mathematics at the GCE ‘O’ level examination are not allowed to take H2 Mathematics but may consider taking up H1 Mathematics. However, students who are posted to the Science stream but did not offer Additional Mathematics at the GCE ‘O’ level examination are advised to offer H2 Mathematics if they intend to pursue Science or Engineering courses at a university. Students who wish to offer H3 Mathematics must offer H2 Mathematics as well.

The use of a Graphing Calculator (GC) without a computer algebra system is expected for these Mathematics syllabi. The examination papers will be set with the assumption that candidates will have access to GCs.

#### H1 Mathematics

H1 Mathematics provides a foundation in mathematics for students who intend to enrol in university courses such as business, economics and social sciences. The topics covered include Graphs, Calculus and Statistics. A major focus of the syllabus would be the understanding and application of basic concepts and techniques of statistics. This would equip students with the skills to analyse and interpret data, and to make informed decisions.

#### H2 Mathematics

H2 Mathematics prepares students adequately for university courses including mathematics, physics and engineering, where more mathematics content is required. The topics covered are Functions and Graphs, Sequences and Series, Vectors, Complex Numbers, Calculus, Permutations and Combinations, Probability, Probability Distributions, Sampling, Hypothesis Testing, and Correlation and Regression. Students would learn to analyse, formulate and solve different kinds of problems. They would also learn to work with data and perform statistical analysis.

#### H3 Mathematics

H3 Mathematics offers students who have a strong aptitude for and are passionate about mathematics a chance to further develop their mathematical modeling and reasoning skills. Opportunities abound for students to explore various theorems, and to read and write mathematical proofs. Students would learn the process of mathematical modeling for real-world problems, which involves making informed assumptions, validation and prediction. Students may choose from the three H3 Mathematics modules, namely the MOE-UCLES module, the NTU Numbers and Matrices module and the NUS Linear Algebra module.

The MOE-UCLES module is conducted by tutors from our Mathematics Department. The three main topics to be investigated are Graph Theory, Combinatorics and Differential Equations. This module would be mounted only if there’s demand.

The NTU Numbers and Matrices module is conducted by lecturers from the Nanyang Technological University (NTU). Students would have to travel to Hwa Chong Institution to attend this module.

The NUS Linear Algebra module is conducted by lecturers at the National University of Singapore (NUS). Students who offer this module would have to attend lessons together with the undergraduates at the university.

## Maths Skills to be a Doctor

Doctor and Lawyer are the top two favourite careers in Singapore. Do doctors need to use Maths? Read the below to find out.

Even if Maths is not directly needed, the logical thinking skills learnt in Mathematics will definitely be of great use. 🙂

I am not a medical doctor, but my two younger siblings are medical students, and the Mathematical knowledge and thinking skills have definitely helped them in their medical studies.

Functional numeracy is as essential to an aspiring medical professional as functional literacy. As a physician, perhaps the most important mathematical skills you will need are:

1. Basic mathematical knowledge sufficient to calculate drug doses, concentrations, etc.

2. An understanding of the core statistical concepts most commonly represented in the medical literature.

3. Knowledge of algebra to understand calculations of acid–base status, etc.

4. Ability to appreciate whether or not results are mathematically plausible.    (Nusbaum, 2006)

The careful logical reasoning that is necessary for the study of mathematics is an essential element of clinical reasoning. Although you do not need higher mathematics to get through medical school, you will need the ability to manipulate numbers, including fractions, ratios, powers of 10 and logarithms. You will also need a basic understanding of probability, graphs and simple algebra. You will need to rearrange equations and convert between units of measure.

It’s often unclear from your interactions with a doctor how much math she is using in order to treat you. While not all doctors have to use math as directly and frequently as engineers do, all of them must understand the complex mathematical equations that inform different medical treatments in order to administer treatments correctly.

## Dosages and Half-Life

One of the most common ways in which doctors use mathematics is in the determination of medicine prescriptions and dosages. Doctors not only have to use basic arithmetic to calculate what dosage of a particular drug will be effective for your height and body type over a specific period of time, they will also have to be aware of the medicine’s cycle through the body and how the dosage of one drug compares with the dosage of a similar type of drug. Sometimes doctors have to use calculus to figure out the right dosage of a drug. Calculus is the study of how changing variables affect a system. In the human body, the kidney processes medicine. However, people’s kidneys are at varying levels of health. Doctors can designate the kidney as a changing function in a calculus equation known as the Cockroft-Gault equation. This equation uses the level of creatine in a patient’s blood to find the level of the kidney’s functioning, which allows the doctor to determine the appropriate dose.

## Cancer Treatment

When a doctor administers radiation therapy to a cancer patient, the radiation beams have to cross each other at specific angles, so that they harm the cancerous tumor without harming the surrounding healthy tissue. The precise numbers for these angles must be calculated mathematically. Cancer tends to respond to any drug by mutating so that its DNA is no longer affected by that drug. Oncologists and medical scientists have decided to target cancerous tumors with many different kinds of drugs at once so that the cancer is unable to respond adequately. They use complex mathematical models that plot the speed and timing of the cancer’s different mutations to figure out what combinations and dosages of different drugs should be used.

## Medical Images and Tests

Doctors in medical imaging use two-dimensional images of a patient’s body taken from thousands of angles to create a three-dimensional image for analysis. Determining what angles should be used and how they will fit together requires mathematics. Medical researchers who study disease will analyze the mathematical dimensions of these images. Neurologists who run EEGs on patients to measure their brain waves must add and subtract different voltages and use Fourier transforms to filter out signal static. Fourier transforms are used to alter functions in calculus.

## Treatment Research

Medical scientists working with cardiologists use differential equations to describe blood flow dynamics. They also build sophisticated computer models to find the ideal size of an artificial aorta and where to place it in an infant pending a heart transplant. Doctors have to read medical journals to keep up on the latest scientific findings for the benefit of their patients. In addition to describing the calculus used to model health conditions, medical journal studies also make heavy use of statistics and probability to describe the health conditions of whole populations and the likelihood that different treatments will be effective.