Rigorous Calculus: ε-δ Analysis

Math Online Tom Circle

Rigorous Analysis epsilon-delta (ε-δ)
Cauchy gave epsilon-delta the rigor to Analysis, Weierstrass ‘arithmatized‘ it to become the standard language of modern analysis.

1) Limit was first defined by Cauchy in “Analyse Algébrique” (1821)

2) Cauchy repeatedly used ‘Limit’ in the book Chapter 3 “Résumé des Leçons sur le Calcul infinitésimal” (1823) for ‘derivative’ of f as the limit of

$latex frac{f(x+i)-f(x)}{i}$  when i ->…

3) He introduced ε-δ in Chapter 7 to prove ‘Mean Value Theorem‘: Denote by (ε , δ) 2 small numbers, such that 0< i ≤ δ , and for all x between (x+i) and x,

f ‘(x)- ε < $latex frac{f(x+i)-f(x)}{i}$ < f'(x)+ ε

4) These ε-δ Cauchy’s proof method became the standard definition of Limit of Function in Analysis.

5) They are notorious for causing widespread discomfort among future math students. In fact, when it…

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