Abstract Vector Spaces 向量空间

**Eigenvalues & Eigenvectors** (*valeurs propres et vecteurs propres*) 特征值/特征向量

[ Note: “*Eigen*-” is German for *Characteristic* 特征.]

**The Essence of Determinant (*)**: (行列式)

(*) Determinant was invented by the ancient Chinese Algebraists 李冶 / 朱世杰 /秦九韶 in 13th century (金 / 南宋 / 元) in《天元术》.The Japanese “和算” mathematician 关孝和 spread it further to Europe before the German mathematician Leibniz named it the “Determinant” in 18th century.

[**NOTE**] 金庸 武侠小说 《神雕侠女》里 元朝初年的 黄蓉 破解 大理国王妃 瑛姑 苦思不解的 “行列式”, 大概是求 eigenvalues & eigenvectors ? 🙂