2016 Nobel-Prize Winning Physics Explained Through Pastry 

Math Online Tom Circle

2016 Nobel Prize Physics is Mathematics (Topology) applied in SuperConductor and SuperFluid to explain the Phase Transitions and Phase matters.

Phase matters: Solid, Liquid, Gas

Phase Transition: Solid -> Liquid -> Gas

Superconductor below Tc (critical temperature) : zero resistance.

Superfluid below Tc : zero viscosity.

Reason explained by Mathematics : Topological invariance increased step-wise.

Eg. Disk (0 hole), Circle (1 hole), Donut (2 holes), Coffee Cup (2 holes)… XYZ (n holes). [n increased by steps from 0, 1, 2, 3… ]

We say donut and coffee cup are homeomorphic (同胚) because they have the same topological invariant 拓扑不变量(2 holes).

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