Existence and properties of normal closure

If E is an algebraic extension field of K, then there exists an extension field F of E (called the normal closure of E over K) such that
(i) F is normal over K;
(ii) no proper subfield of F containing E is normal over K;
(iii) if E is separable over K, then F is Galois over K;
(iv) [F:K] is finite if and only if [E:K] is finite.

The field F is uniquely determined up to an E-isomorphism.

Proof:
(i) Let X=\{u_i\mid i\in I\} be a basis of E over K and let f_i\in K[x] be the minimal polynomial of u_i. If F is a splitting field of S=\{f_i\mid i\in I\} over E, then F=E(Y), where Y\supseteq X is the set of roots of the f_i. Then F=K(X)(Y)=K(Y) so F is also a splitting field of S over K, hence F is normal over K as it is the splitting field of a family of polynomials in K[x].

(iii) If E is separable over K, then each f_i is separable. Therefore F is Galois over K as it is a splitting field over K of a set of separable polynomials in K[x].

(iv) If [E:K] is finite, then so is X and hence S. Say S=\{f_1,\dots,f_n\}. Then F=E(Y), where Y is the set of roots of the f_i. Then F is finitely generated and algebraic, thus a finite extension. So [F:K] is finite.

(ii) A subfield F_0 of F that contains E necessarily contains the root u_i of f_i\in S for every i. If F_0 is normal over K (so that each f_i splits in F_0 by definition), then F\subset F_0 (since F is the splitting field) and hence F=F_0.

Finally let F_1 be another extension field of E with properties (i) and (ii). Since F_1 is normal over K and contains each u_i, F_1 must contain a splitting field F_2 of S over K with E\subset F_2. F_2 is normal over K (splitting field over K of family of polynomials in K[x]), hence F_2=F_1 by (ii).

Therefore both F and F_1 are splitting fields of S over K and hence of S over E: If F=K(Y) (where Y is set of roots of f_i) then F\subseteq E(Y) since E(Y) contains K and Y. Since Y\supseteq X, so K(Y) contains E=K(X) and Y, hence F=E(Y). Hence the identity map on E extends to an E-isomorphism F\cong F_1.

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