## Cellular Approximation for Pairs

(This is Example 4.11 in Hatcher’s book).

Cellular Approximation for Pairs: Every map $f:(X,A)\to (Y,B)$ of CW pairs can be deformed through maps $(X,A)\to (Y,B)$ to a cellular map $g:(X,A)\to (Y,B)$.

What “map of CW pairs” mean, is that $f$ is a map from $X$ to $Y$, and the image of $A\subseteq X$ under $f$ is contained in $B$CW pair $(X,A)$ means that $X$ is a cell complex, and $A$ is a subcomplex.

First, we use the ordinary Cellular Approximation Theorem to deform the restriction $f:A\to B$ to be cellular. We then use the Homotopy Extension Property to extend this to a homotopy of $f$ on all of $X$. Then, use Cellular Approximation Theorem again to deform the resulting map to be cellular staying stationary on $A$.

We use this to prove a corollary: A CW pair $(X,A)$ is n-connected if all the cells in $X-A$ have dimension greater than $n$. In particular the pair $(X,X^n)$ is n-connected, hence the inclusion $X^n\hookrightarrow X$ induces isomorphisms on $\pi_i$ for $i and a surjection on $\pi_n$.

First we note that being n-connected means that the space is non-empty, path-connected, and the first n homotopy groups are trivial, i.e. $\pi_i(X)\cong 0$ for $1\leq i\leq n$.

Proof: First, we apply cellular approximation to maps $(D^i,\partial D^i)\to (X,A)$ with $i\leq n$, thus the map is homotopic to a cellular map of pairs $g$. Since all the cells in $X-A$ have dimension greater than $n$, the n-skeleton of $X$ must be inside $A$. Therefore $g$ is homotopic to a map whose image is in $A$, and thus it is 0 in the relative homotopy group $\pi_i(X,A)$. This proves that the CW pair $(X,A)$ is n-connected. Note that 0-connected means path-connected.

Consider the long exact sequence of the pair $(X,X^n)$: $\dots\to\pi_n(X^n,x_0)\xrightarrow{i_*}\pi_n(X,x_0)\xrightarrow{j_*}\pi_n(X,X^n,x_0)\xrightarrow{\partial}\pi_{n-1}(X^n,x_0)\to\dots\to\pi_0(X,x_0)$

Since it is an exact sequence, the image of any map equals the kernel of the next. Thus, $\text{Im}(i_*)=\ker j_*=\pi_n(X,x_0)$ (since $\pi_n(X,X^n,x_0)=0$). Thus $i_*$ is surjective. Since $\pi_n(X,X^n,x_0)=0$, the later terms in the long exact sequence are also 0, thus, the inclusion $X^n\hookrightarrow X$ induces isomorphisms on $\pi_i$ for $i, since the first n homotopy groups all vanish.

Advertisements ## About mathtuition88

http://mathtuition88.com
This entry was posted in homotopy and tagged . Bookmark the permalink.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.