**3 Waves of AI Evolution:**

**1st Wave (1950s)** : Alan Turing “The Father of AI” and his Princeton Prof Alonzo Church (Lambda Calculus). MIT Prof Malvin Minksy’s “Lisp” Functional Programming (a.k.a. Symbolic or Declarative) Language.

**2nd Wave (1980s – 1990s**) : Knowledge-Based Rule Engine Expert Systems.

Failed because knowledge acquisition process is too difficult with limited rigid rules.

**3rd Wave (2010s -)**: DeepLearning is the latest AI tool for Machine Learning, famous after 2016 “AlphaGo” game by a former Funan-center UK Kid Demis Hassabis (UK/Greek father & Singapore Chinese mom teacher) beat 2 “Go” World Champions (Korean Lee Sedol李世乭 and China 柯洁).

** Great Books Recommended** –

1. Learn Everything in 《**Deep Learning》**:

- Math (eg. Gradient Descent – by French GrandMaster Cauchy 1847),
- Linear Algebra (eg. Matrix, Eigen-decomposition),
- Probability (eg. Bayesian, etc),
- Key Deep Learning techniques.

**Note**: Available at Singapore National…

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