In the world of Math education there are 3 big schools (门派) — in which the author had the good fortune to study under 3 different Math pedagogies:

“武当派” French (German) -> “少林派” Russian (China) -> “华山派” UK (USA).

( ) : derivative of its parent school. eg. China derived from Russian school in 1960s by Hua Luogeng.

**Note**:**武当派** : 内功, 以柔尅刚, 四两拨千斤 <=> “Soft” Math, Abstract, Theoretical, Generalized.

**少林派**: 拳脚硬功夫 <=> “Hard” Math, algorithmic.

**华山派**: 剑法轻灵 <=> Applied, Astute, Computer-aided.

The 3 schools’ pioneering grand masters (掌门人) since 16th century till 21st century, in between the 19th century (during the French Revolution) Modern Math (近代数学) is the critical milestone, the other (现代数学) is WW2 : –

**France**: Descartes / Fermat / Pascal (17 CE : Analytical Geometry, Number Theory, Probability), Cauchy / Lagrange / Fourier /Galois (19 CE, Modern Math : Analysis, Abstract Algebra),

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