Gradient Theorem (Proof)

This amazing theorem is also called the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus for Line Integrals. It is quite a powerful theorem that sometimes allows fast computations of line integrals.

Gradient Theorem (Fundamental Theorem of Calculus for Line Integrals)

Let C be a differentiable curve given by the vector function \mathbf{r}(t), a\leq t\leq b.

Let f be a differentiable function of n variables whose gradient vector \nabla f is continuous on C. Then \displaystyle \int_C \nabla f\cdot d\mathbf{r}=f(\mathbf{r}(b))-f(\mathbf{r}(a)).


\begin{aligned}  \int_C\nabla f\cdot d\mathbf{r}&=\int_a^b\nabla f(\mathbf{r}(t))\cdot \mathbf{r}'(t)\,dt\ \ \ \text{(Definition of line integral)}\\  &=\int_a^b (\frac{\partial f}{\partial x_1}\frac{dx_1}{dt}+\frac{\partial f}{\partial x_2}\frac{dx_2}{dt}+\dots+\frac{\partial f}{\partial x_n}\frac{dx_n}{dt})\,dt\\  &=\int_a^b \frac{d}{dt}f(\mathbf{r}(t))\,dt\ \ \ \text{(by Multivariate Chain Rule)}\\  &=f(\mathbf{r}(b))-f(\mathbf{r}(a))\ \ \ \text{(by Fundamental Theorem of Calculus)}  \end{aligned}


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